Literature of antiquity and the Middle Ages - Summary 2019 year

Christopher Marlowe (1564-1593)

Maltese Jew (The Jew of Malta) - Tragedy (1588, published 1633)

In the prologue Machiavelli says that everyone considers him dead, but his soul flew over the Alps and he arrived in Britain for friends. He considers religion a toy and states that there is no sin, but there is only stupidity that power is affirmed only by force, and the law, like the Dragon, is strong only with blood. Machiavelli came to play the tragedy of a Jew who had grown rich by living on his principles, and asked spectators to appreciate him merit and not judge too strictly.
Barabbas, a Maltese Jew, sits in his office in front of a pile of gold and waits for the arrival of ships with goods. He thinks aloud that everyone hates him for good luck but is honored for wealth: "Let it be better, / All hate the rich Jew, / than the pitiful poor Jew!" He sees Christians only malice, falsehood and pride, which do not fit with their doctrine, and those Christians who have a conscience live in poverty. He is glad that the Jews have gained more wealth than Christians. When he learned that the Turkish fleet had approached the shores of Malta, Barabbas was not worried: neither peace nor war would touch him; only his own life, the life of his daughter and the good of his life were important to him. Malta has paid tribute to the Turks for a long time, and Barabbas suggests that the Turks increased her so much that the Maltese do not have to pay, so the Turks are about to seize the city.
The son of the Turkish sultan Kalimat and Pasha demand payment of tribute in ten years. The Governor of Malta, Farnese, does not know where to get so much money, and he is consulted with the closest. They ask for a deferral to raise money from all the inhabitants of Malta. Kalim gives them a month's delay. Farnese decides to collect a tribute from the Jews: each one has to give half of his property; the one who refuses will be immediately baptized, and the one who refuses to give half the property and is baptized will lose all his goodness.
Three Jews say that willingly give half of their property, Barabbas is outraged by their obedience. He is ready to give half of his wealth, but only if the decree extends to all the inhabitants of Malta, and not to some Jews. In punishment for the obstinacy of Barabbas, Farnese gives orders to take away all his goodness. Barabbas calls Christians robbers and says that they are forced to steal him in order to return the loot. Knights offer the governor to give the house of Barabbas to the women's monastery, and Farnese agrees. Barabbas accuses them of cruelty and says that they want to take away his life. Farnese argues: "Oh no, Barabbas, rub your hands with blood / We do not want to. We are forbidden by faith. " Barabbas curses the devious Christians who have been so inhumane with him. Other Jews remind him of Job, but the riches that lost Job have not been compared to that what did Barabbas lose? Remaining alone, Barabbas laughs at gullible fools: he was a precautionary man and securely hid his treasures. Barabbas calms his daughter Aviguei, offended by the injustice of the Christian authorities. He keeps his wealth in the cemetery, and since the house was taken away under the monastery and neither him nor Aviguei is allowed to go there anymore, he orders his daughter to ask for a monastery, and at night to push the floorboards and get gold and precious stones. Aviguei pretends to have quarreled with her father and wants to be cut off to a nun. Monks Giacomo and Bernardine ask the Abbess to take Aviguei to the monastery, and the Abbesses bring her into the house. Barabbas pretends to curse the daughter who appealed to Christianity. The nobleman Mathias, in love with Aviguei, grieves, knowing that Avigia went to the monastery. Son of Farnese Lodovico, heard about the beauty of Avigii, dreams of seeing her. The night comes. Barabbas does not sleep, waiting for news from Avigia, Finally she appears. She managed to find a cache, and she throws down treasure bags. Barabbas brings them down.
Vice-Admiral of Spain Martin del Bosco arrives in Malta. He brought captured Turks, Greeks and Moors and is going to sell them in Malta. Farnese does not agree: Maltese in union with the Turks. But Spain has the right to Malta and can help the Maltese get rid of Turkish domination. Farnese is ready to rebel against the Turks if the Spaniards support him, and decides not to pay tribute to the Turks. He authorizes Martino del Bosco to sell slaves.
Adoviko meets Barabbas and talks with him about diamonds, referring to Aviguei. Barabbas promises to give him a diamond aloud, but he wants to take revenge on the governor and destroy Lodoviko. Mathias asks Barabbas, about whom he spoke with Lodoviko. Barabbas soothes Matias: about diamonds, not about Aviguei. Barabbas buys a slave - Itamora - and asks him about his past life. Itammor tells how many bad deeds he has committed. Barabbas rejoices, finding an adherent in it: "... we are both villains, / Circumcised and Christians swear". Barabbas leads to Lodoviko, asking Aviguey to be more affable to him. Aviguei loves Matthias, but Barabbas explains to her that she is not going to lay her in bondage and marry Ludovic forcibly, just for his plans, she needs to be kind to him. He tells Matthias that Farnese was planning to marry Lodoviko on Avigue. Young men formerly friends, are quarreling. Aviguei wants to reconcile them, but Barabbas sends two false calls to the duel: one is Lodovico on behalf of Mathias, the other - Matias on behalf of Lodoviko. During the fight young men kill each other. The mother of Mathias and Father Lodovico, Governor Farnese, swear to take revenge on him who has quashed them. Itammor tells Aviguee about her father's harassment. Aviguei, learning how cruel the father was to her lover, turns to Christianity - this time sincerely - and goes back to the monastery again. Having learned about this, Barabbas is afraid that his daughter will give him, and decides to poison her. He puts poison in a pot of rice flour and sends it to the nuns as a gift. Nobody can be believed, even his own daughter, only Itaumor is faithful to him, so Barabbas promises to make him his heir. Itaumor relates the pot to the monastery and puts it at a secret door. Aviguei wants to reconcile them, but Barabbas sends two false calls to the duel: one is Lodovico on behalf of Mathias, the other - Matias on behalf of Lodoviko. During the fight young men kill each other. The mother of Mathias and Father Lodovico, Governor Farnese, swear to take revenge on him who has quashed them. Itammor tells Aviguee about her father's harassment. Aviguei, learning how cruel the father was to her lover, turns to Christianity - this time sincerely - and goes back to the monastery again. Having learned about this, Barabbas is afraid that his daughter will give him, and decides to poison her. He puts poison in a pot of rice flour and sends it to the nuns as a gift. Nobody can be believed, even his own daughter, only Itaumor is faithful to him, so Barabbas promises to make him his heir. Itaumor relates the pot to the monastery and puts it at a secret door. Aviguei wants to reconcile them, but Barabbas sends two false calls to the duel: one is Lodovico on behalf of Mathias, the other - Matias on behalf of Lodoviko. During the fight young men kill each other. The mother of Mathias and Father Lodovico, Governor Farnese, swear to take revenge on him who has quashed them. Itammor tells Aviguee about her father's harassment. Aviguei, learning how cruel the father was to her lover, turns to Christianity - this time sincerely - and goes back to the monastery again. Having learned about this, Barabbas is afraid that his daughter will give him, and decides to poison her. He puts poison in a pot of rice flour and sends it to the nuns as a gift. Nobody can be believed, even his own daughter, only Itaumor is faithful to him, so Barabbas promises to make him his heir. Itaumor relates the pot to the monastery and puts it at a secret door. but Barabbas sends two false calls to the duel: one - Lodovico on behalf of Matthias, the other - Matthias on behalf of Lodoviko. During the fight young men kill each other. The mother of Mathias and Father Lodovico, Governor Farnese, swear to take revenge on him who has quashed them. Itammor tells Aviguee about her father's harassment. Aviguei, learning how cruel the father was to her lover, turns to Christianity - this time sincerely - and goes back to the monastery again. Having learned about this, Barabbas is afraid that his daughter will give him, and decides to poison her. He puts poison in a pot of rice flour and sends it to the nuns as a gift. Nobody can be believed, even his own daughter, only Itaumor is faithful to him, so Barabbas promises to make him his heir. Itaumor relates the pot to the monastery and puts it at a secret door. but Barabbas sends two false calls to the duel: one - Lodovico on behalf of Matthias, the other - Matthias on behalf of Lodoviko. During the fight young men kill each other. The mother of Mathias and Father Lodovico, Governor Farnese, swear to take revenge on him who has quashed them. Itammor tells Aviguee about her father's harassment. Aviguei, learning how cruel the father was to her lover, turns to Christianity - this time sincerely - and goes back to the monastery again. Having learned about this, Barabbas is afraid that his daughter will give him, and decides to poison her. He puts poison in a pot of rice flour and sends it to the nuns as a gift. Nobody can be believed, even his own daughter, only Itaumor is faithful to him, so Barabbas promises to make him his heir. Itaumor relates the pot to the monastery and puts it at a secret door. the other is Mathias on behalf of Lodovico. During the fight young men kill each other. The mother of Mathias and Father Lodovico, Governor Farnese, swear to take revenge on him who has quashed them. Itammor tells Aviguee about her father's harassment. Aviguei, learning how cruel the father was to her lover, turns to Christianity - this time sincerely - and goes back to the monastery again. Having learned about this, Barabbas is afraid that his daughter will give him, and decides to poison her. He puts poison in a pot of rice flour and sends it to the nuns as a gift. Nobody can be believed, even his own daughter, only Itaumor is faithful to him, so Barabbas promises to make him his heir. Itaumor relates the pot to the monastery and puts it at a secret door. the other is Mathias on behalf of Lodovico. During the fight young men kill each other. The mother of Mathias and Father Lodovico, Governor Farnese, swear to take revenge on him who has quashed them. Itammor tells Aviguee about her father's harassment. Aviguei, learning how cruel the father was to her lover, turns to Christianity - this time sincerely - and goes back to the monastery again. Having learned about this, Barabbas is afraid that his daughter will give him, and decides to poison her. He puts poison in a pot of rice flour and sends it to the nuns as a gift. Nobody can be believed, even his own daughter, only Itaumor is faithful to him, so Barabbas promises to make him his heir. Itaumor relates the pot to the monastery and puts it at a secret door. Itammor tells Aviguee about her father's harassment. Aviguei, learning how cruel the father was to her lover, turns to Christianity - this time sincerely - and goes back to the monastery again. Having learned about this, Barabbas is afraid that his daughter will give him, and decides to poison her. He puts poison in a pot of rice flour and sends it to the nuns as a gift. Nobody can be believed, even his own daughter, only Itaumor is faithful to him, so Barabbas promises to make him his heir. Itaumor relates the pot to the monastery and puts it at a secret door. Itammor tells Aviguee about her father's harassment. Aviguei, learning how cruel the father was to her lover, turns to Christianity - this time sincerely - and goes back to the monastery again. Having learned about this, Barabbas is afraid that his daughter will give him, and decides to poison her. He puts poison in a pot of rice flour and sends it to the nuns as a gift. Nobody can be believed, even his own daughter, only Itaumor is faithful to him, so Barabbas promises to make him his heir. Itaumor relates the pot to the monastery and puts it at a secret door. even his own daughter, only Itaumor is faithful to him, so Barabbas promises to make him his heir. Itaumor relates the pot to the monastery and puts it at a secret door. even his own daughter, only Itaumor is faithful to him, so Barabbas promises to make him his heir. Itaumor relates the pot to the monastery and puts it at a secret door.
A deportation month has passed, and a Turkish ambassador arrives in Malta for a tribute. Farnese refuses to pay, and the ambassador threatens that the Turkish guns will turn Malta into a desert. Farnese invites the Maltese to charge the cannon and prepare for the battle. Monks Giacomo and Bernardine say that the nuns suffered an unknown illness and they died. Before Abigail's death, he confesses Bernardine about the slander of Barabbas, but asks him to keep a secret. As soon as it emits the spirit, the monk is in a hurry to accuse Barabbas of villainy. Barabbas pretends to repent, says that he wants to be baptized, and promises to give all his wealth to the monastery. Bernardine and Giacomo argue, whose monastic order is better, and everyone wants to drag Barabbas to their side. As a result, the monks quarreling, insulting each other and fighting, In the end Bernardine leaves with Itamorom, and Barabbas stays with Giacomo. At night, Barabbas and Itamore stifled Bernardine, then leaned against his wall against the corpse. When Giacomo comes, he, thinking that Bernardine is standing at the wall, in order not to let him into the house, strikes him with a stick. The corpse falls, and Giacomo sees Bernardine dead. Itamor and Barabbas are accused of Giacomo in the murder of Bernardine. They say that it is not necessary for them to be baptized, once the Christian monks kill each other.
Courtesan Bellamyra wants to capture the riches of Barabbas. For this purpose, she decides to tempt Itarorm and writes a love letter to her. Itaumor falls in love with Bellamyra and is ready for her for everything. He writes to Barabbas a letter requiring him three hundred crowns and threatening that he would otherwise be confessed in all crimes. A servant of Bellamyra sends for money, but only brings only ten crowns. Itamor in fury writes to Barabbas a new message, where it already requires five hundred crowns. Barabbas is outraged by the impatience of Itamor and decides to take revenge for betrayal. Barabbas gives money, and she is changing clothes, so that he can not be recognized, and goes after the servant of Bellamyra. Itamor is drunk with Bellamyra and her servant. He tells them how they arranged with Barabova the match between Mathias and Lodovico. They are dressed in a lacewarm Frenchwoman Baravva dressed in a wide-haired hat. Like Bellamyre how the flowers are smelling on the hat of Barabbas, and he removes a bouquet from his hat and presents it to her. But the flowers are poisoned - now Bellamyra, and her servant, and Itamore is waiting for death.
Farnese and knights are preparing to defend the city from the Turks. Bellamir comes to them and tells us that in the death of Matthias and Lodovico Barabbas is guilty and he has poisoned his daughter and nuns. The guard leads Barabbas and Itamoras. Itomor gives testimony against Barabbas. They are taken to prison. Then the head of the guard returns and announces the death of the courtesan and her servant, as well as Barabbas and Itamor. The sword carries Barabbas as dead and throws behind the city wall. When everyone leaves, he wakes up: he has not died, he just drank a magic drink - an infusion of poppies with a mandragore - and fell asleep. Kadimat with the army at the walls of Malta. Barabbas shows the entrance to the city to the Turks and is ready to serve the Turkish sultan. Kalima promises to appoint him the governor of Malta. Kalimat takes Farnese and the knights into captivity and hand them over to the new governor Barabbas, who sends them all to prison. He calls himself a farnisan and asks what reward he is expecting, if he, taking away the Turks unawares, will return Malta to freedom and will be merciful to the Christians. Farnese promises Barabbas a generous reward and governor's post. Barabbas frees Farnese, and he goes to collect money to bring them to Barabbas in the evening. Barabbas is about to invite Kalim to a feast and kill him there. Farnese negotiates with the knights and Martin del Bosco that, after hearing the shot, they will rush to help him - only then can all of them be saved from slavery. When Farnese brings to him a hundred thousand collected, Barabbas says that in the monastery, where Turkish troops will come, guns and barrels of gunpowder will be hidden that will explode, crushing the hailstones on the heads of the Turks. As for the Kalima with the retinue, when they get to the gallery, Farnese will cut off the rope and the floor of the gallery will collapse, and all who will be there at this time will fall into the cellars. When Kalimat comes to the banquet, Barabbas invites him upward to the gallery, but before Kalimat gets up, a shot is fired, and Farnese breaks the rope - Baravva falls into the boiler standing in the sub-field. Farnese shows Kalimat, which trapped him. Before death, Barabbas admits that he wanted to kill all; both Christians and Gentiles. Barabbas nobody's sorry, and he perishes in a boiling pot. Farnese takes Kalimat into captivity. Because of Baravva, the monastery was blown up and all Turkish soldiers were killed. Farnese is about to hold Kalimat in his possession until his father reimburses all the damage caused to Malta. From now on, Malta is free and will not submit to anyone. before the Kalima will rise there, a shot is fired, and Farnese breaks the rope - Baravva falls into the boiler standing in the sub-field. Farnese shows Kalimat, which trapped him. Before death, Barabbas admits that he wanted to kill all; both Christians and Gentiles. Barabbas nobody's sorry, and he perishes in a boiling pot. Farnese takes Kalimat into captivity. Because of Baravva, the monastery was blown up and all Turkish soldiers were killed. Farnese is about to hold Kalimat in his possession until his father reimburses all the damage caused to Malta. From now on, Malta is free and will not submit to anyone. before the Kalima will rise there, a shot is fired, and Farnese breaks the rope - Baravva falls into the boiler standing in the sub-field. Farnese shows Kalimat, which trapped him. Before death, Barabbas admits that he wanted to kill all; both Christians and Gentiles. Barabbas nobody's sorry, and he perishes in a boiling pot. Farnese takes Kalimat into captivity. Because of Baravva, the monastery was blown up and all Turkish soldiers were killed. Farnese is about to hold Kalimat in his possession until his father reimburses all the damage caused to Malta. From now on, Malta is free and will not submit to anyone. Barabbas nobody's sorry, and he perishes in a boiling pot. Farnese takes Kalimat into captivity. Because of Baravva, the monastery was blown up and all Turkish soldiers were killed. Farnese is about to hold Kalimat in his possession until his father reimburses all the damage caused to Malta. From now on, Malta is free and will not submit to anyone. Barabbas nobody's sorry, and he perishes in a boiling pot. Farnese takes Kalimat into captivity. Because of Baravva, the monastery was blown up and all Turkish soldiers were killed. Farnese is about to hold Kalimat in his possession until his father reimburses all the damage caused to Malta. From now on, Malta is free and will not submit to anyone.