Literature of antiquity and the Middle Ages - Summary 2019 year

Niccolo Machiavelli (1459-1527)

Mandragora - Comedy (1518, published 1524)

The action takes place in Florence. An obsession is the conversation of Callimaco with his servant, Syro, which, in essence, is directed towards the audience. The young man explains why he returned to his hometown from Paris, where he was taken away at the age of ten. In a friendly company, the French and the Italians started a dispute, whose women are more beautiful. And one Florentine declared that Madonna Lucretius, the wife of Messer Nicha Kalfucci, would eclipse all the ladies with her charm. Wanting to check it, Callimako went to Florence and found that his countryman had not screwed up his soul - Lucretius was even more beautiful than he expected. But now Callimaco experiences unheard-of torment: falling in love with madness, he is doomed to languish with unbridled passion, as it is impossible to seduce virtuous Lucretius. There is only one hope: the sly Ligurio has taken over - the one that is always for dinner and constantly begging for money.
Liguro wants to please Callimaco. Speaking to husband Lucretius, he is convinced of two things: firstly, the Messer Nicha is unusually stupid, and secondly, he wants to have children, whom God does not give in any way. Nicha has already consulted with many doctors - everyone in one voice recommends to go with his wife to the water, which is not at all pleasing to the housewife Nicha. Lucretia himself vowed to defend the forty early luncheon, but only twenty survived - some fat clergyman began to stick to her, and since then, her character was badly spoiled. Ligurio promises to introduce Nicha to the most famous physician who recently arrived in Florence from Paris - with the help of Ligurio, he may, and will agree to help.
Callimaco in the role of the doctor produces on Messer Nicha's indelible impression: it is magnificently explained in Latin and, unlike other doctors, demonstrates a professional approach to the matter: it is necessary to bring a woman's urine to find out if she can have children. To the great joy of Nicha, the verdict is made favorable: his wife will surely bear if he drinks a tincture of mandrake. This is the last resort to which the French kings and dukes resorted, but he has one drawback: the first night is mortally dangerous for a man. Ligurio offers an exit: you need to grab some stroller on the street and put it in bed to Lucretia - then the harmful action of the mandrake will affect it. The scumbag sighs sadly: no, the wife will never agree, because this devout fool had to break even in order to get urine. However, Ligurio is sure of the success: in this holy case, the mother of Lucretia Sostrat and her cleric, Fr Timothy, are simply obliged to help. Sostratic with enthusiasm persuades her daughter - for the sake of the child can be tolerated, and even a speech is about a nonsense. Lucretius is horrified: to spend the night with an unfamiliar man who will have to pay for this life, how can one decide on such? In any case, she will not do this without the consent of the holy father.
Then Nicha and Ligurio go to Fra Timothy. To begin with, Ligurio launches a test ball: one nun, a relative of Messer Calfucci, accidentally became pregnant - can not it give the poor man such a broth that she throws out? Fra Timothy willingly agrees to help the rich man - in his words, the Lord approves of everything that benefits people. Having parted for a moment, Ligurio returns with the news that the need for a decay has disappeared, because the girl threw herself away - but there is an opportunity to do another good deed, having been happy with Messer Nicha and his wife. Fra Timothy quickly pretends that he gives him an idea, thanks to which you can expect a generous reward from both the lover and the husband - and both will be grateful to him for the tomb of life. It is only necessary to persuade Lucretius. And Fra Timothy copes with his task without much difficulty. Lucretia is good and simple: the monk assures her that the tramp may not die, but once the danger exists, it is necessary to save her husband. But adultery, this "sacrament" can not be called in any way, for it will be done for the benefit of the family and on the order of the spouse, which must obey. Not the flesh is sinning, but the will - in the name of the continuation of the genus of the daughter of Lot, once coalesced with his own father, and no one denounced them for that. Lucretius does not readily agree with the arguments of the confessor, and Sostraat promises the son-in-law that she will lay her daughter in bed. and nobody denounced them for that. Lucretius does not readily agree with the arguments of the confessor, and Sostraat promises the son-in-law that she will lay her daughter in bed. and nobody denounced them for that. Lucretius does not readily agree with the arguments of the confessor, and Sostraat promises the son-in-law that she will lay her daughter in bed.
Ligurio is in a hurry with a joyful message to Callimaco, and he tells Ciro to attribute the Niches Messer to the notorious tinctur of mandragora - a sweet wine with spices. But here comes the difficulty: Callimaco is obliged to grab the first crashed rider in the eyes of the stupica of her husband - to avoid anyway, because Nicha can suspect a mistake. A clever parasite instantly finds a way out: in the role of Callimaco will act fra Timothy, and the young man, clutching the cover of the nose and twitching his mouth, will stroll around the house of Lucretia. Everything happens in full compliance with the plan: seeing the overcoated monk, Nicha admires the ability to change Callimaco's appearance and voice - Ligurio advises to put a wax ball in his mouth, but for the first time gives the dung. While Nycha is spitting, Kallimako goes out into the street in a torn raincoat and with a lute in his hands — conspirators armed with the password “Saint Rogach”, pounce upon him and drag him into the house under her husband's joyful exclamations.
The next day, Fra Timothy, who is in no hurry to know what the deal is all about, will find out that everyone is happy. Nichi proudly tells of his foresight: he himself split up and examined the ugly vagrant, which turned out to be quite healthy and surprisingly well-structured. After making sure that the wife and the "deputy" did not evade their duties, he talked with Sostrata about the future baby all night - of course, it would be a boy. And the rider had to pick up some of the pins from the bed; but, in general, the doomed young man is partly even sorry. For his part, Callimaco tells Ligurio that Lucretius perfectly understood the difference between an old husband and a young lover. He confessed to her in everything, and she saw in it the sign of God - this could have happened only by the pleasure of the heavens, therefore the beginning should necessarily continue. The conversation is interrupted by the appearance of the Messer Nicha: he scatters with gratitude to the great doctor, and then both of them, together with Lucretius and Sostrat, go to the fra Timothy - the benefactor of the family. The husband "acquaints" his half with Callimako and orders to surround this person with all attention as the best friend of the house. Lucretia's custodial will declares that Callimaco will be their chest, for without her help she would never have suffered a child. And a satisfied monk invites the honest company to pray for the successful completion of a good deed. Lucretia's custodial will declares that Callimaco will be their chest, for without her help she would never have suffered a child. And a satisfied monk invites the honest company to pray for the successful completion of a good deed. Lucretia's custodial will declares that Callimaco will be their chest, for without her help she would never have suffered a child. And a satisfied monk invites the honest company to pray for the successful completion of a good deed.