Literature of antiquity and the Middle Ages - Summary 2019 year

Luis de Camoes (1524 / 1525-1580)

Lusiyadi (Os Lusiad) - Poem (1572)

The poem opens with dedication to King Sebastian, after which the author goes directly to the story of the expedition of Vasco da Gama, which resulted in the opening of the sea route to India. Wives of Luz - in the Middle Ages it was believed that the Roman name of Portugal Lusitania took place in the name of a certain Luz - they leave from their native shores. While heroes are struggling with the marine element, the gods gather at Olympus to decide on the participation of Lusitans. Bacchus, who considers himself the ruler of India, is afraid of losing his power and influence in these lands and inclined the gods to condemn Lusitans to death for insolence, but the patronage of Jupiter, Mars and Venus saves brave.
Meanwhile, travelers reach the shores of Africa, where their nautical shuttles float to their ships. From them, the Lusatians will find out that the island near which they have thrown an anchor is called Mozambique and that its indigenous population is committed to Islam, although it is under the authority of Christians. The natives offer their shippers a traveler who will help them get to the shores of India. The next day, the ruler of the island comes to the Lusatians. Having heard the stranger's story about their native places, the purpose of their journey, he penetrates to them with acute envy and decides to seize their ships. Bacchus, who has not left, despite the decision of the council of the gods, the plan to destroy the travelers, takes the form of a wise man, whose opinion is considered the whole of Mozambique, and is to the ruler of the island, to cheer on that decision to destroy the travelers. When in the morning they leave the ship to the shore to replenish fresh water, they are waiting for armed natives. A fierce battle is being engulfed, from which the Portuguese go out. Then the ruler of Mozambique sends a harasser to them with apologies and a feeder, who is ordered to bring down the travelers from the path.
After a while, the louisites swim to the island of Kiloa, famous for their wealth, but the patronizing goddess Zitera disturbs the calmness of the elements, and because of the strong winds sailors can not cling to the island where their hostile reception would be expected. Then the insidious feeder announces that there is another island nearby, Mombasa, where Christians live, although in fact it is inhabited by irreconcilable and warlike Muslims. Floating to Mombasa, the Portuguese threw anchor. Soon there are Moors who invite the Portuguese to the coast, but Vasco da Gama first sends with them only two sailors, so that they are convinced that the island really live the Christians. Bacchus, who follows closely the travelers, this time takes the form of a Christian priest and misleads the messengers. But when the next day the armada goes to the island, Venus and obedient nymphs, raising terrible excitement at sea, block her path, Vasco da Gama, realizing that his ships saved Providence, sheds praise to the sky, and Venus asks Jupiter to protect the people to whom she protects from the bacchan intrigues. Twisted in her prayers, Jupiter reveals to her that the ships of Vasco da Gama are destined to swim to the shores of India and that the Mozambique, Diu, Goa will later bow to the Portuguese.
The next island that travelers meet on their way is Malindi, the sincerity and honesty of the ruler of which the Portuguese have already heard. Messenger Vasco da Gama tells King Malindi about the misfortunes of the travelers, and the friendly friend of the island's ruler the next day he is on the ship Vasco da Gama to testify to his respect. The Portuguese warmly welcome the king and his retinue, and show him the whole ship. Awesome ruler Malindi is interested in the country where travelers arrived, its history. Vasco da Gama talks about the past of his homeland, about her heroes, their deeds, about the change of kings, about the courage of the Portuguese, their conquests, about how he himself decided on a similar enterprise. Shocked, the ruler of Malindi arranges a lavish festival in honor of the travelers, after which they set off again.
Meanwhile, Bacchus, not tired of obstructing the Portuguese, descends into the underwater possessions of Neptune, and calls for the revenge of the Lusitans for a bold desire to conquer new lands and seas, thereby abiding by the power of Neptune. Bacchus does not hide from the lord of the sea - he himself is afraid of the Portuguese to such an extent that he is ready to break the will of Jupiter and the decision of the council of the gods. Outraged Neptune agrees to punish navigators. Meanwhile, the night comes and the dream overcomes the travelers. In order not to fall asleep, one of them decides to recall the exploits of the twelve Portuguese gentlemen, who at the time of Joan I went to England to defend the honor of twelve English ladies. The story interrupts the news of the approach of the strongest storm; She was sent by Neptune to perish seamen. Although Luzitan courageously and selflessly struggling with the element, their ships are ready to go to the bottom, and then Vasco da Gama appeals to Providence for help. His prayer is heard - the wind dies.
Finally, travelers reach the shores of India. Among the crowd surrounding the envoy Vasco da Gama, an Arab is known to speak Spanish. He rises to the ship Vasco da Gama and talks about this land, its people, their beliefs and customs. Then Vasco da Gama goes to the ruler of these lands and invites him to enter into an agreement on friendship and trade. While the ruler is collecting advice to decide what answer to give to the Portuguese, they invite to the ship of Katuala, one of the rulers of these lands. By showing him portraits of his glorious ancestors that hang everywhere, travelers recall their story once more.
Bacch makes another attempt to interfere with the Lusitans: he is in the dream of one of the Indian Muslims and warns against it against foreigners. Having woken up, this man collects monotheists, and they go together to the lord, in front of whom the Portuguese are accused of bad thoughts and robberies. This makes the mistress think. He calls Vasco da Gama and throws his accusations heard from his accused in front of him, but the brave Portuguese proves his innocence and gets the permission to return to the ship. Having learned from one of the Moors that the Muslims are waiting for the merchant fleet from Mecca, hoping to use it to crush the Portuguese, Vasco da Gama decides to go immediately to the return journey, especially since the weather favors travel. However, he strongly regrets that he was unable to establish himself in India and conclude an alliance advantageous to Portugal with her lord. Yet the goal was achieved - the path to the far desired land was explored.
Venus continues to take care of the sailors and, in order to give them rest, sends on the way a beautiful vision - the island of Love, where the joyfully encountering heroes of nymphs and neres live. Travelers here are waiting for the joy of love, happiness, peace. On parting, one of the nymphs reveals to the lusitans the future: they will learn how the Portuguese will establish themselves on the lands he met on the way and, most importantly, in India, what will happen in their homeland, which will always glorify their brave heroes. This exalted praise in honor of the participants of the campaign and ends with a poem.