Literature of antiquity and the Middle Ages - Summary 2019 year
Euripides (485 (or 480) - 406 BC e)
Iphigenia in Taurida (Iphigeneia en Taurois) - Tragedy (after 412 BC?)
The Tauride ancient Greeks called the modern Crimea. The Tavers lived there - the Scythian tribe, who honored the goddess-goddess and brought her human sacrifices, which in Greece have long come out of the custom. The Greeks believed that this goddess-virgin was none other than their Artemis-hunter. They had a myth, in the setting up and at the time of the unraveling of which stood Artemis, and both times - with human sacrifice - true, imaginary, imperfect. The closure of this myth was on the Greek coast in Aulida, and the isolation was on the Scythian coast in Tavrida. And one of the bloodiest and most cruel stories of Greek mythology stretched out between the zest and the defection.
The great Argos king Agamemnon, the main leader of the Greek race in the Trojan War, was the wife of Clytomnestra and had three children from her: the eldest daughter of Iphigenia, the average daughter of Electra and the youngest son of Orestes. When the Greek army sailed on a trip to Troy, the goddess Artemis demanded that Agamemnon should sacrifice her daughter to Iphigenia. Agamemnon did it; As it happened, Euripides showed in the tragedy "Iphigenia in Aulida". In the last moment, Artemis took pity on the victim, replaced the girl on the alley with linden, and Iphigenia roamed on a cloud to a distant Tauride. There stood a temple of Artemis, and in the temple a wooden statue of the goddess was kept, as though falling from heaven. In this church Iphigenia became a priestess.
Nobody from the people saw and did not know that Iphigenia was saved: everyone thought that she died on the altar. Her mother, Clitemnestra, concealed mortal hatred for her infamous husband. And when Agamemnon returned to the winner from the Trojan War, she, mourning for her daughter, killed him with her own hand. After this, her son, Orest, with the help of the sister of her Electra, retaliated for her father, killed her mother. After this, the goddess of the bloody vengeance of Erinney, retaliated for the Klytemnestru, sent madness to Orestes and chased him in torment throughout Greece, until he was saved by God Apollo and the goddess Athena. In Athens there was a trial between Erinney and Orestes, and Orestes was acquitted. Aeschylus described all this in detail in his trending "Orestea".
He did not just tell about one. In order to atone for guilt, Orestes had to commit a feat: to get in the far Tavrida the Artemis's idol and bring him to the Athenian land. His helper was his inextricable friend, Pilad, who married his sister Electra. How did Orest and Pilad do their thing, and as Orestes found his sister Iphigenia, whom he considered long lost, - about this Euripides wrote the tragedy "Iphigenia in Taurida".
The action is in Taurida before the temple of Artemis. Iphigenia comes to the audience and tells them who she is, how she was saved in Aulida, and how Artemis now serves in this Scythian kingdom. Service is heavy: all foreigners, whom the sea enters here, is sacrificed here to Artemis, and she, Iphigenia, should prepare them for death. She does not know what her father, mother, brother is. And now she had a dream come true: the Argos palace collapsed; among the ruins there is only one column, and she clings to this column just as the strangers are dressed here before the victim. Of course, this column is Orestes; and the death sentence only may mean that he died. She wants to mourn her and leaves to call her servants to this.
While the scene is empty, Orestes and Pilad leave her. Orestes lives, and he is in Taurida; They are destined to kidnap the idol out of this temple, and they are looking at how to get there. They will do it at night, and the day will be reburied in a cave by the sea, where their ship is hidden. There they go, and Iphigenia returns to the stage with the chorus of the maids; she and her mourned Orestes, and the evil rock of their ancestors, and their bitter fate in a foreign land.
The bulletin interrupts their crying. The shepherds have just seized two aliens just on the sea coast; One of them fought in a fit and instigated the persecutors Erinney, and the other tried to help him and protect him from the shepherds. Both of them were taken to the king, and the king ordered, in the usual way, to sacrifice them to Artemis: let Iphigenia prepare for the prescribed rite. Iphigenia in confusion. Typically, this service with a bloody victim is in hardship for her; but now that the dream told her that Orestes had died, her heart was hardened and she was almost happy about their future executions. Oh, why did not you bring here the perpetrators of the Trojan War - Elena and Menelausa! The choir grieves about a distant homeland.
Enter prisoners. They're young, she's sorry for them. "What is your name?" - she asks Orest. He is silently silent. "Where are you from?" - "From Argos". - "Troy was falling? Was the culprit Elena survive? and the Menelaus? but Odyssey? Ahill? and Agamemnon? How! he died from his wife! but she's from her son! and the son - is Orest live? "-" He lived, but in exile - everywhere and nowhere. " - "About happiness! My dream turned out to be false. " "Yes, false dreams and falsehood are even gods," Orest says, thinking of how they sent him for salvation, and led to death.
"If you are from Argos, then I have a request for you," says Iphigenia. - I have a letter to my homeland; I'll spare and let go of one of you, and let him send a letter to whom I will speak. " And she leaves the letter. Orest and Pilad begin a noble dispute, of which of them remain alive: Orestes orders to save Pilad, Pilad - Orest. Orestes overwhelms the argument: "I ruined my mother, should I still have to ruin another?" Live, remember me, and do not believe in false gods. " "Do not be angry with the gods," Pilad tells him, "death is near, but it has not yet come." Iphigenia takes out a letter board. "Who will lucky them?" "I," Pilad says. "But to whom?" "Orest," says Iphigenia. - Let him know that his sister Iphigenia did not perish in Aulida, but serves Artemis Taurida; let him come and save me from this hard service. " Orest does not believe in his ears. "Should I send this letter to Orest? - asks Pilad. "All right, I convey!" - and he handles the letters of the plates to his comrade. Iphigenia does not believe in his eyes. "Yes, I'm your brother Orest! - shouts Orest. "I remember the veil sheathing you, where you depicted the eclipse of the sun, and the spin of hair that you left for your mother, and the great-grandfather's spear that was standing in your tower!" Iphigenia throws himself into his arms - only to think, she almost became a murderer of her brother! They are celebrating with recognizing songs. she almost became a brother murderer! They are celebrating with recognizing songs. she almost became a brother murderer! They are celebrating with recognizing songs.
It was unhappy, but the main thing remained: how to get Orestov and take away the Artemis idol from the Tauride temple? The temple is under guard, and the guard does not smoke. "I came up with it! - says Iphigenia, - I will deceive the king with cunning, and for this I will tell him the truth. I will say that you, Orestes, killed your mother, and you, Pilad, helped him; therefore both of you are unclean, and your touch has defiled the goddess. And over you and over the statue you need to clean up - bathing in seawater. You and I, and the statue, will go out to the sea - to your ship. " The decision is taken; the chorus sings a song in honor of Artemis, rejoicing at Iphigenia and envious of her: she will return to her homeland, and to them, servants, it is still a long time to feel sad in a foreign country.
Iphigenia leaves the temple with a wooden statue of the goddess in his hands, to meet her - the king. Serving Artemis is a woman's affair, the king does not know his subtleties and obediently believes Iphigenia. The purification of the idol is a sacrament, even if the watchman is removed, and the inhabitants do not leave the houses, and the king himself will take up the burning of the temple, so that the goddess has a pure abode. (This is also true: the goddess needs to be cleansed of the blood of human sacrifices, and the pure abode she will be in the land of Athena.) The king enters the temple, Iphigenia follows Artemis with the prayer, followed by Orestes and Pilades. The choir sings a song in honor of the believer of Apollo, the supervisor of Orestes: yes, there are lies dreams, but there are no gods of lies!
Intersection is coming. The messenger runs, calling the king: the prisoners fled, and with them - the priestess, and with her - the idol of the goddess! They, the guards, stood for a long time turning around in order not to see the sacraments, but then turned and saw the ship at the coast, and on the ship of fugitives; the guards rushed to them, but it was late; rather to court to catch criminals! However, here, as often happens in the junctions of Euripides, "God from the car" arises: the goddess Athen appears on the stage. "Stop, King: the work of the fugitives is pleasing to the gods; leave them alone and let go of these women here from the choir. And you are bold, Orest: right to the land of Athena and there on the shore erected a sanctuary to Artemis; there will be no more human victims, but in memory of Tavrida on the main holiday on her idol will splash blood. And you, Iphigenia, will become the first priestess in this temple, and descendants will honor your grave there. And I rush you after my Athens. Wey, the wind is right! "Athena disappears, the Tauride king remains kneeling, the end of the tragedy.