Literature of antiquity and the Middle Ages - Summary 2019 year
Euripides (485 (or 480) - 406 BC e)
Heracles - Tragedy (about 420 BC)
The name "Hercules" means "The glory of the goddess Hera". That name sounded ironically. Goddess Hera was the heavenly queen, the wife of the supreme Zeus Thunder. Hercules was the last of the earthly sons of Zeus: Zeus descended to many mortal women, but after Alkmen, the mother of Hercules, he was already to no one. Heracles was supposed to save the gods of the Olympians in a war for power over the world against the insurgent Giants: there was a prophecy that the gods will defeat the Giants only if at least one mortal person comes to their aid. Hercules became such a person. The hero should have been, like all the gods, to be grateful to him. But she was the legitimate wife of Zeus, the patron saint of all legal marriages, and the illegitimate son of her husband, and even the most beloved, was hated by her. Therefore, all the legends about the earthly life of Hercules are tales of how his goddess Hera pursued.
The main such sayings were three. First, on the twelve exploits of Hercules: Hera arranged so that the mighty Hercules would have to serve twelve bondage services to the insignificant king, Evrispeus. Secondly, about Hercules' madness: Hera sent a frenzy to him, and he interrupted his own children from the bowl, accepting them as enemies. Thirdly, about the martyrdom of Hercules: Herra made her wife Hercules, without knowing it himself, to give him a cloak soaked with poison, which so tormented the hero that he himself burned himself on fire. About self-immolation Hercules Sophocles wrote his tragedy "Trachynyanka". And about the madness of Hercules, Euripides wrote the tragedy of Hercules.
In different parts of Greece, as always, these myths were spoken differently. In Middle Greece, in Thebes, where Hercules was born, the story of madness was best remembered. In the south, in Argos, where Heracles served as King of Evrispeus, the story of the twelve feats was best remembered. In the north, near Mount Eta, where the Hercules was a funeral fire, they talked about his self-immolation. And in Athens they spoke differently: as if Hercules had not burned himself, and found the last shelter from Gera's anger here in Athens, with his young friend, the Athenian hero of Theseus. This little-widespread myth took Evripid to unravel his tragedy. But the wife of Hercules does not call Deanir (like Sophocles), but Megara (as she called it in Thebes).
The heavenly father of Hercules was Zeus, and the earthly father of Hercules was the hero of Amphitrion, the husband of his mother Alkmeny. (About Amfitrion, Alkmen and Zeus will later write a comedy Romans Plaut.) Amphitrion lived in Thebes; there Hercules was born there, he married there on the fianan princess Megar, from there he went to Argos to serve King Eurasia. Twelve years old - twelve services in a foreign country; the last one is the worst: Hercules had to descend to the ground and bring out a monstrous three-headed dog who guarded the kingdom of the dead. And from the kingdom of the dead - people knew - never returned. And Hercules was considered dead. This was used by the neighboring wicked king, Lick (whose name means "wolf"). He captured Thebes, killed the Phananist king, Father Megara, and Megara, and her children, and the old Amphitrion, was sentenced to death.
Here and there begins the tragedy of Euripides. On the stage - Amphitryon, Megara and three small silent sons of her and Hercules. They sit in front of the palace at the altar of the gods - as long as they hold on to him, they are not touched, but their strength is already over, and there is no need to wait. They come to them, drawing on the staff, the Favan elders, forming the choir, - but is this help? Amphitrion, in a long monologue, tells the audience what happened here, and ends with the words: "Only in misfortune, we know who is a friend and who is not." Megara is desperate, and yet Amfitrion encourages her: "Happiness and misery are replaced by a succession: but suddenly Hercules will take and come back?" But this is not believed.
An evil Lick appears. "Do not cling to life! Hercules will not return from that light. Hercules is not a hero at all, but a coward; he fought somehow not always face to face, sword and spear, but from the distance, with arrows from the bow. And who will believe that he is the son of Zeus, and not yours, the old man! My now is the top, and you are death. " Amphitrion accepts the challenge: "Is he a son of Zeus, ask the fallen Giants! The archer in the battle is more dangerous than the all-knight. Thebes have forgotten how much they owed to Heracles - the worse for them! And the rapist for violence will pay. "Megara comes up here. "Pretty: death is terrible, but you will not go against fate. Hercules do not survive, but the villain does not understand. Let me put my sons in a funeral outfit - and lead us to execution!"
The choir sang a song for the glory of the heroic deeds of Hercules: how he struck a stone lion and the wild centaurs, the many-headed Hydra and the three-headed giant, caught a sacred leg and trampled predatory horses, defeated the Amazons and the king of the sea, lifted the heavens on the shoulders and brought golden paradise apples, descended to the edge of the corpses, and there is no exit ... Megara with Amphitrile leads the Heracles' sons: "Here they alone, he was inquiring Thebes, another Argos, the third Echalius, one lion's skin, another stick, the third bow and arrow, and now they are the end. Zeus, if you want to save them, save it! Hercules, if you can come to us - be!"
And Hercules is. He just left the realm of the dead, his eyes are not accustomed to the sun, he sees children, his wife, his father in burial clothes and does not believe in himself: what is the matter? Megara and Amphitrion, excited, hurriedly explain to him: now Lick will come to lead them to execution. "Then - all to the palace! and when he enters, it will deal with me. I was not afraid of an infernal dog - will I be afraid of a miserable Lika? "The choir glorifies the young power of Hercules. Leak enters, steps into the palace, the choir dies; Because of the scene, the moan of the deceased Lika is heard, and the chorus sings a victorious, solemn song. He does not know what the worst thing is - ahead.
Above the scene there are two goddesses. This is Irida, the Hera, and Lissa, the daughter of Noah, the deity of madness. While Hercules completed twelve feats, he was under the protection of Zeus, but the feats are over, and now Hera will take his own. Madness will attack Hercules as a hunter for prey as a rider on a horse like a drunk hunk. The goddesses disappear, only the choir is on stage, he is in horror, because of the scene - cries, music rattles, earth trembles, a frightened messenger rushes away. He says: when he fought Lika, Hercules began to bring a cleansing sacrifice, but suddenly he stopped, his eyes poured blood, his foam appeared on his lips: "It's not him, not Evrispee, but I need Evrispey, my tormentor!" Here are his children! "And he throws himself at his own sons. One hides behind a column - Hercules strikes him with an arrow. Another rushes to his chest - Hercules crashes his stick. With the third Megara flees to distant peace - Hercules hackles the wall and beat both. He turns to Amphitrion and is ready to kill his father - but here comes the mighty goddess of Athena, the patroness of Hercules, strikes him with a huge stone, he falls and falls into a dream, and then only households tie him and screw it to the wreckage of the column.
The inner chambers of the palace: Hercules sleeps in a column, above it - the unfortunate Amphitrion, around - the body of Megara and children. Amphitryon and the choir mourn him as dead. Heracles slowly awakens, he does not remember anything and does not understand - maybe he is back in hell? But here he learns about his father, then he hears about what's happening, his hands are unlocked, he sees his crime, understands his guilt and is ready to execute himself by rushing to the sword. And here comes Theseus.
Theseus is young, but already famous: he freed the whole land from the robbers, he killed in Crete a man-bull of the Minotaur and saved his Athens from the tribute to this monster; he descended into the kingdom of the dead, in order to get to his friend the underground lord Persephone, and only Hercules liberated him from there and brought out to white light. He heard that the evil Leak was raging in Thebes, and hurried to help, but it appeared too late. "I must die," Hercules says. - I brought the Hearts anger on Thebes; I overshadowed the fame of my feats in the horror of this crime; better death than life under the curse; let Hera triumph!" "It's not necessary, "replies Toesi. - No one is sinless: even the Olympians in the sky are sinful against their father-Titan; All are subject to the evil fate, but not everyone in her power to resist; will you tremble? Leave thebes, live with me in Athens, but live! "And Hercules gives way. "Only in misfortune, we know who is a friend and who is not," he repeats. "Heracles never cried, but now tear down." Sorry, dead! And you, Thebes, pay the dead, and live for me: all the Hera of us in one knot knot. "
And, leaning on a friend, Heracles leaves the scene.