Literature of antiquity and the Middle Ages - Summary 2019 year

Achilles Tatius (II century)

Leucippus and Clifton (Leucippa et Klitofontus) - Roman

In the Phoenician city of Sidon, the author meets a young man who tells him an unusual story of his love.
The native of Thira, the young man, Clitophon, was already preparing for marriage at Cadillon, the daughter of her father from the second marriage. But here comes from the city of Byzantium his uncle Sostrat. And Klitophont lovers his daughter - a beautiful Leucippus. This feeling soon becomes mutual.
Kliny, the cousin of Clitophon, is in love with the beautiful boy Charlik and gives him a magnificent horse. But the first horseback ride ends with a tragedy: a horrified horse suddenly suffered and turned from the road to the forest. Losing power over the racer, Haric is dying, dumped from the saddle. Woe to Clinias and Haricle's parents infinitely ...
The plot line of the novel is interrupted (or rather, adorned) with beautiful illustrations-inserts - ancient Greek myths about love adventures, passions and suffering of the gods and people, animals, birds and even plants, faithful to each other in their mutual affection. It turns out, it's even the rivers!
Alphia flows through the famous Olympia: "The sea combines marriage and Alfeya, accompanying him to Aretuz. During the Olympic festivities, people are gathered to the stream and cast various gifts in it, he is swiftly flowing with them directly to his beloved and is in a hurry to give her wedding gifts."
Levkipa's mother begins to suspect something and makes every obstacle to the dating of lovers. Of course, the father of Clitophon would not approve of this (he has very different plans and hopes). But mutual feeling flares ever stronger, and young lovers decide to flee from their hometown. They have friends and like-minded people.
"We were six: Leucippus, Satire, I, Clinique and two of his slaves. We traveled along the Sidon road and arrived at Sydon at dawn; Without stopping, we moved to Beirut, hoping to find an anchored ship there. And really! In Beirut, we found a ship that was about to be removed from the anchor. We did not even ask where he was going, but immediately moved to him. It began to light when we were ready to depart for Alexandria, a great city on the Nile. "
On the way, young people talk about the odds of love, and everyone is warmly upholding their beliefs, relying on their personal experience and legends equally.
But swimming was not good: a terrible storm rises, the ship begins to sink with dozens of passengers and sailors. The tragedy is exacerbated by the fact that the lifeboat turns out to be the only one ... By some miracle clinging to the chip of the decaying vessel, Levkippa and Clitophon are still saved: the wave takes them to the coast near the Egyptian city of Pelusiya at the eastern arm of the Nile: "Happy, we entered the earth, giving praise to the immortal gods. But they did not forget to mourn Clinias and Satire as they thought they were dead. "
The author describes in detail the streets, temples and, most importantly, paintings and sculptures, the artistic sights of cities in which he had to visit his heroes. So, on the wall of the temple in Pelusias, the artist Evanchei portrayed Andromeda and Perseus with the head of Medusa Gorgon and the torture of Prometheus, chained to the cliff: an eagle biting its liver, the tint's torrents are depicted so realistically that spectators also penetrate these sufferings. But "Hercules gives hope to the sufferer. He stands and aims from the bow at the Prometheus executioner. Arming the arrow with a string, he pushes his weapon forward with his force, pulling it to the chest with his right hand, whose muscles are strained in an effort to tighten the elastic string. Everything in it bends, united by the common goal: bow, crochet, right hand, arrow. "
From Pelussia our heroes swim down the Nile to Alexandria. But fate prepared them a new test: they are captured by the bandits, and Leucippus is separated from Clitophon - the girl is going to bring the local god as a redemptive victim.
But then the gangsters are turning into flight as the armed detachment that has come to the forefront: some of the captives (among them the Clitophon) are freed. Leucippus remained in the hands of the bandits.
The strategist, having evaluated the rug art of the Clifton, even invites him to dinner. From the hill, where they are located, there are terrible preparations in the camp of gangsters: Aevkippus leads to the altar in a sacred garment, and a terrible slaughter takes place in the eyes of gloomy spectators. Then the girl is put in a coffin and the villains leave the altar.
Under the cover of night darkness, deadly grief, the Clifton walks to the dear coffin and wants to commit suicide immediately along with a lousy lover. But at the very last moment it was stopped by timely friends Satire and Menelaus (with whom they made friends during a tragic voyage). It turns out that they too were saved during the shipwreck and ... they were captured by all the same robbers. To test the reliability of the young men, they charge them to do terrible: to sacrifice Leukippus. And they are solved, hoping for a good destiny. However, it is not justified.
They, it turns out, have a fake sword, whose blade, with a slight press, goes into the handle. With the help of this theatrical weapon, friends and "sacrifice" to Levkipu, which were pre-stupefied with sleepy potions.
So, the cover of the tomb was opened, and "Levkippa rose from her." <...> She rushed to me, we hugged each other and crashed groundlessly without feeling."
Happy friends again together. They are in the army a strategist, who is waiting for reinforcements to finally make up with bandits.
Young people are seen regularly, but their connection is purely platonic. Levkippe was Artemis in a dream and said: "I'll be your intercessor. You will remain virgin until I arrange your marriage and your husband will be none other than the Clifton."
In the meantime, Levkippus falls in love with strategist Harmid. But with all sorts of tricks and excuses, she succeeds in avoiding his caresses and, moreover, rapprochement with a passionate warrior.
And suddenly Leukippa becomes insane. She is furious at all, and her speech is incoherent. Soon it turns out that Levkilpu was donated with a terrible potion. It was made by the idea of a warrior who fell in love with her (again a warrior!) - Forosets Herei. He then acts as a "savior," and, giving the girl an antidote and returning her memory, then invites Leukippus and Clitophon to himself for Foros. And there during the feast robbers, friends of Harei, kidnap Levkipu.
A sea chase begins, in which the ship of the city authorities takes part in the victim's side. The captors will be overtaken!
And here, in the eyes of the pursuers, the robbers bring Levkippus to the deck and cut off her head, and the head of a decapitated body thrown into the waves. Confusion and horror on ships catching up! Meanwhile, the pirates manage to escape.
"... for a long time I mourned the death of my beloved, then I betrayed her body to the burial and returned to Alexandria".
Six months passed, and the mountain gradually began to dazzle: time, as is known, was the best doctor.
And Clini suddenly appeared! He turns out to have picked up a ship that was passing into the sea and delivered it straight to Sidon. He said that Sostrat, the father of Leucippus, had already agreed to give out his daughter for the Clifton. But alas, it's too late ...
Having learned that a young man is in Alexandria, his father is about to come there. However, the events again "dictates Aphrodite". In Klitophonna, the noble and very spectacular Efesian mauler Melita falls in love with passionately. Her husband died during the shipwreck. And Melita hopes that not only her beauty, but the similarity of misfortune will allow her to get closer to the unhappy fiance Levkippa. However, Clifton is still killed by sorrow, despite the time and effort of his friends, and Melita responds with relief to Melissa's favor. Matron literally burns out of passion, and the boy, under various pretexts, refuses to become her spouse, and already in this capacity to divide the bed: everything is limited to "authorized caresses."
And suddenly the whimsical fate presents a new surprise to the heroes of the novel: it turns out Leukippa ... alive! On that terrible day, the pirates, as it turned out, were now beaked off by another woman, specially dressed in Leukrippa's tunic, and her body was thrown into the sea, with a prudent hiding her head.
Levkippu, however, was sold by the robbers profitable to slavery, and she turned out to be ... Melita's estate (but under the name of Lakena). And unfortunate lovers met again. Though it is not possible to be together with them yet.
Suddenly Melita's husband returns to Fersundr. He, too, does not perish too: and he was not destined to drown in the abyss of the sea. And Fersundr, of course, is furious and insulted by the presence of a young and beautiful Tyriy in his house.
Melita's assurances are that their relationship is noble and extremely friendly, they do not cause confidence and are rejected with anger. The keyfitter is thrown into the dungeon. He is presented with the most incredible charges (including the murder), and a harsh trial is being prepared.
Fersander is still sent to his friends. And the insidious manager - supervisor over the slaves in the estate - shows him Levkipu, and the insulted husband immediately falls in love with her.
Meanwhile, the court under the pressure of Fersander and his supporters condemns Clifton to death. But this was preceded by events, without which such a novel is impossible.
Having learned that Leucippus is her slave Lacan, Melita initially terribly grieves, but then, subdued by the faithfulness of Clitophon and touched by the endless misery of lovers, she tries to organize their escape. Melita gives the Clifton his clothes, and he, unrecognized, leaves her home. But - another failure: on the way, they grab and expose him (both in the direct and in the figurative sense).
In Ephesus, as a theorem (holy ambassador), Sostrat arrives at this time - the father of Leucippus. And only by chance prevents them from meeting on the first day in the temple of Artemis, whose protection is hoped for a tormented girl.
Overcoming all obstacles, contrary to the many false accusations, Leucippus proves its innocence. In the cave of the forest god Pan sounds wonderful in her honor syringe - a seven-arched cane flute, which testifies to the virginity of the girl. The unfortunate Melita's nobility is also convincingly confirmed. The people, and then the court, take the side of the lovers. But the angry Fersander escapes from the city.
Clitophon, along with her uncle (Sostrast embraced finally a newly-found daughter!) And a lover, having undergone so many adventures and trials, returns to Byzantium, his hometown. There they also played a long-awaited wedding.