Literature of antiquity and the Middle Ages - Summary 2019 year

Euripides (485 (or 480) - 406 BC e)

Medeia - Tragedy (431 BC)

There is a myth about the hero of Yason, the leader of the Argonauts. He was the heir to the king of the city of Iolca in northern Greece, but the power of the city was captured by his elder relative, the domineering Palei, and in order to return her, Jason had to make a feat: with the friends of the battles on the Argo ship to sail to the eastern edge of the land and there , in the country of Colchis, to get a sacred golden fleece guarded by a dragon. About this swimming then Apollonius Rhodes wrote a poem "Argonautka".
Colchis ruled the mighty king, the son of the Sun; his daughter, Medea sorceress, fell in love with Jason, they swore allegiance to each other, and she saved him. First, she gave him sorcery drugs, which helped him first withstand the test feat - to plow the arable land on the fire-breathing bulls - and then surrender the guardian of the dragon. Secondly, when they departed from Colchis, Medea killed her brother from love for her husband and scattered pieces of his body along the coast; The persecuted Colchians stayed buried, and could not reach the fugitives. Thirdly, when they returned to Iolk, Medea, in order to save Jason from the deceit of Pelia, offered the daughters of Pelia to slaughter their old father, promising to revive him afterwards to the young man. And they killed his father, but Medea refused to promise, and the father-in-law's daughters escaped into exile. However, Iolk kingdom Yason failed: the people were indignant against the alien sorceress, and Jason and Medea and two little sons fled to Corinth. The old Corinthian king, looking closely, offered him his wife a daughter and a kingdom with her, but, of course, to divorce her with a sorceress. Jason accepted the offer: maybe he was already beginning to be afraid of Medea. He made a new wedding, and Medea the king sent an order to leave Corinth. In a sunny chariot draped by dragons, she ran to Athens, and told her children, "Send your wedding gift to my stepmother: a sewn cloak and a zlototkanny head dressing." The cloak and bandage were impregnated with fire poison: the flames also captivated the young princess, the old king and the royal palace. The children rushed to seek salvation in the temple, but the Corinthians beat them stones with rage. What became of Jason, nobody knew exactly. The people were indignant against the alien sorceress, and Jason and Medea and two little sons fled to Corinth. The old Corinthian king, looking closely, offered him his wife a daughter and a kingdom with her, but, of course, to divorce her with a sorceress. Jason accepted the offer: maybe he was already beginning to be afraid of Medea. He made a new wedding, and Medea the king sent an order to leave Corinth. In a sunny chariot draped by dragons, she ran to Athens, and told her children, "Send your wedding gift to my stepmother: a sewn cloak and a zlototkanny head dressing." The cloak and bandage were impregnated with fire poison: the flames also captivated the young princess, the old king and the royal palace. The children rushed to seek salvation in the temple, but the Corinthians beat them stones with rage. What became of Jason, nobody knew exactly. The people were indignant against the alien sorceress, and Jason and Medea and two little sons fled to Corinth. The old Corinthian king, looking closely, offered him his wife a daughter and a kingdom with her, but, of course, to divorce her with a sorceress. Jason accepted the offer: maybe he was already beginning to be afraid of Medea. He made a new wedding, and Medea the king sent an order to leave Corinth. In a sunny chariot draped by dragons, she ran to Athens, and told her children, "Send your wedding gift to my stepmother: a sewn cloak and a zlototkanny head dressing." The cloak and bandage were impregnated with fire poison: the flames also captivated the young princess, the old king and the royal palace. The children rushed to seek salvation in the temple, but the Corinthians beat them stones with rage. What became of Jason, nobody knew exactly. and Jason and Medea and two little sons fled to Corinth. The old Corinthian king, looking closely, offered him his wife a daughter and a kingdom with her, but, of course, to divorce her with a sorceress. Jason accepted the offer: maybe he was already beginning to be afraid of Medea. He made a new wedding, and Medea the king sent an order to leave Corinth. In a sunny chariot draped by dragons, she ran to Athens, and told her children, "Send your wedding gift to my stepmother: a sewn cloak and a zlototkanny head dressing." The cloak and bandage were impregnated with fire poison: the flames also captivated the young princess, the old king and the royal palace. The children rushed to seek salvation in the temple, but the Corinthians beat them stones with rage. What became of Jason, nobody knew exactly. and Jason and Medea and two little sons fled to Corinth. The old Corinthian king, looking closely, offered him his wife a daughter and a kingdom with her, but, of course, to divorce her with a sorceress. Jason accepted the offer: maybe he was already beginning to be afraid of Medea. He made a new wedding, and Medea the king sent an order to leave Corinth. In a sunny chariot draped by dragons, she ran to Athens, and told her children, "Send your wedding gift to my stepmother: a sewn cloak and a zlototkanny head dressing." The cloak and bandage were impregnated with fire poison: the flames also captivated the young princess, the old king and the royal palace. The children rushed to seek salvation in the temple, but the Corinthians beat them stones with rage. What became of Jason, nobody knew exactly. offered him his wife a daughter and a kingdom with her, but, of course, in order to divorce her with a sorceress. Jason accepted the offer: maybe he was already beginning to be afraid of Medea. He made a new wedding, and Medea the king sent an order to leave Corinth. In a sunny chariot draped by dragons, she ran to Athens, and told her children, "Send your wedding gift to my stepmother: a sewn cloak and a zlototkanny head dressing." The cloak and bandage were impregnated with fire poison: the flames also captivated the young princess, the old king and the royal palace. The children rushed to seek salvation in the temple, but the Corinthians beat them stones with rage. What became of Jason, nobody knew exactly. offered him his wife a daughter and a kingdom with her, but, of course, in order to divorce her with a sorceress. Jason accepted the offer: maybe he was already beginning to be afraid of Medea. He made a new wedding, and Medea the king sent an order to leave Corinth. In a sunny chariot draped by dragons, she ran to Athens, and told her children, "Send your wedding gift to my stepmother: a sewn cloak and a zlototkanny head dressing." The cloak and bandage were impregnated with fire poison: the flames also captivated the young princess, the old king and the royal palace. The children rushed to seek salvation in the temple, but the Corinthians beat them stones with rage. What became of Jason, nobody knew exactly. In a sunny chariot draped by dragons, she ran to Athens, and told her children, "Send your wedding gift to my stepmother: a sewn cloak and a zlototkanny head dressing." The cloak and bandage were impregnated with fire poison: the flames also captivated the young princess, the old king and the royal palace. The children rushed to seek salvation in the temple, but the Corinthians beat them stones with rage. What became of Jason, nobody knew exactly. In a sunny chariot draped by dragons, she ran to Athens, and told her children, "Send your wedding gift to my stepmother: a sewn cloak and a zlototkanny head dressing." The cloak and bandage were impregnated with fire poison: the flames also captivated the young princess, the old king and the royal palace. The children rushed to seek salvation in the temple, but the Corinthians beat them stones with rage. What became of Jason, nobody knew exactly.
It was hard for the Corinthians to live with the bad reputation of the infants and the wicked. Therefore, according to the tradition, they urged the Athenian poet Eviripus to show in the tragedy that they did not kill Jason's children, but Medea himself, their mother. It was difficult to believe in such a horror, but Euripides made it believe.
"Oh, if those pines were never collapsed, from which the ship on which Jason sank ..." - the tragedy begins. It says the old nurse Medea. Her mistress has just learned that Jason marries a princess, but still does not know what the king is telling her to leave Corinth. Behind the scene are the moans of Medea: she cries for Jason, and herself, and children. "Take care of the children," the nursing mother said to the old educator. Chorus of Corinthian women in anxiety: Medea would not have called for the worst misfortune! "Terrible royal pride and passion! better world and measure."
The stones fell silent, Medea goes to the choir, she says firmly and courageously. "My husband was everything for me - I have nothing more. About the miserable part of a woman! They give it to a stranger's home, pay a dowry for her, buy her a master; to hurt her, as in the battle, and to leave - a shame. You are here, you are not alone, but I am one. " An old Corinthian king stands out to her: immediately, in the eyes of all, let the sorceress go to exile! "Alas! It's hard to know more than others:
from this fear, from this hatred. Give me at least a day's deadline: decide where to go. " The king gives her the day of the deadline. "Blindfold! - she says to him afterwards. "I do not know where I will go, but I know that I will leave you dead." Who are you? The choir sings a song about universal lies: oaths are broken, the rivers flow backwards, men are more insidious than women!
Jason enters; a dispute begins. "I saved you from the bulls, from the dragon, from Pelia - where are your oaths? Where should I go? In Colchis - the ashes of his brother; in Iolka - the dust of Pelia; your friends are my enemies. O Zeus, why can we recognize fake gold, but not a fake man! "Jason replies:" I did not save you, but the love that driven you. For salvation, this is me in the calculation: you are not in the wild Kolkhida, but in Greece, where they can sing the glory and me and you. My new marriage - for the sake of children: born of you, they are not lawful, and in my new home they will be happy. " - "Do not need happiness at the cost of such an offense!" - "Oh, why can not people be born without women! less would be in the light of evil. " The chorus sings a song about evil love.
Medea will do his thing, but where should he go? Here a young Athenian king Aegea appears: he went to the oracle to ask why he had no children, and the oracle did not understand. "You will have children," Medea says, "if you give me a shelter in Athens." She knows Aya's son is born on a strange side - the hero of Theseus; knows that these Theseus will expel her from Athens; knows that then Aegea will perish from this son - he will rush into the sea with a false statement about his death; but silent. "Let me perish if I let you drive you out of Athens!" Says Aegey, More Medey now does not need anything. Aegea will have a son, and Jason will not have children - neither from a new wife nor from her, Medea. "I will rip out from the root of the tribe of Jason!" - and let descendants be terrified. The choir sings the song for the glory of Athens.
Medea reminded of the past, enlisted the future - now her concern - about the present. The first one is about her husband. She calls Jason, begs for forgiveness - "we are, women!" - flies, tells the children Hug his father: "I have a raincoat and a bandage, the legacy of the Sun, my ancestor; let them bring them to your wife! "-" Of course, and God give them a long life! "Medea's heart is compressed, but it forbids self-pity. Chorus sings: "Something will be!"
The second concern is about children. They took the presents and returned; Medea cries for them for the last time. "I gave birth to you, I bothered you, I see your smile - maybe the last time? Cute hands, cute lips, royal faces - are not I gonna spoil you? Your father has stolen your happiness; your father is depriving you of your mother; I will pity you - my enemies will laugh; do not get it! Pride in me is strong, and anger is stronger than me; it's decided! "The chorus sings:" Oh, it's better not to give birth to children, not to lead a house, to live with the Muses, do women be mentally weaker than men? "
The third concern is about the divorce. The messenger runs: "Save me, Medea: the princess and the king have died from your poison!" - "Tell me, tell me what's more, the sweeter!" The children entered the palace, they all admired, the princess is happy with the halls, Jason asks her to be kind stepmother for a baby. She promises she puts on her outfit, she is beautiful in front of the mirror; Suddenly, the paint runs out of the face, foam appears on the lips, the flames cover her curls, the burnt meat is squeezed on the bones, the poisoned blood bloodshot like a resin from the bark. An old father with a scream falls on her body, the dead body wraps him like an ivy; he is seated to shake him, but he himself dead, and both, charred, lie, are dead. "Yes, our life is just a shadow," says the messenger, "and there is no happiness for people, but good luck and failures."
Now there is no way back; if Medea does not kill the children themselves - they will be killed by others. "Do not wait, heart: only a coward hesitates. Silence, remembering: now I do not have them, I'll cry tomorrow. " Medea goes behind the scene, the choir sings in horror: "The Sun is an ancestor and Zeus! hold her hand, do not let her murder be multiplied! "Two baby moans are heard, and it's over.
Jason explodes: "Where is she? on earth, in the underworld, in the sky? Let her be torn, I just have to save the children! "-" Late, Jason ", - the choir tells him. The palace is spreading over, over the palace - Medea on the Solar Chariot with dead children on their hands. "You are a lioness, not a wife! - yason shouts. "You are a demon whom the gods struck me!" - "Call as you want, but I wounded your heart." - "And my own!" - "It's easy for me to feel pain when I see you". - "Your hand killed them!" - "And before that, your sin." - "So let the gods kill you!" - "Gods do not hear the perpetrators." Medea disappears, Jason in vain invokes Zeus. The choir ends the tragedy with the words:
"It does not happen that you believed faithfully, / And unexpected gods find paths - / This is what we have experienced."