Literature of antiquity and the Middle Ages - Summary 2019 year
Giovanni Boccaccio (1313-1375)
Decameron (II Decameron) - The Book of Novels (1350-1353, published 1471)
The first day of Decameron,
"in the continuation of which, after the author will tell, on what occasion they gathered and about what. spoke among themselves the persons who will act further, gathered together on the day of the reign of Pampinay, they interpret that everyone is more pleased. "
In 1348 Florence was visited by a pernicious plague, one hundred thousand people died, although before that no one had assumed that There are so many inhabitants in the city. Relatives and friendships fell, servants refused to serve the mistresses, the dead were not buried, and dumped into pits dug in church cemeteries.
And in the midst of trouble, when the city was almost deserted, seven young women from the age of eighteen to twenty eight years met in Santa Maria Novella's temple, "interconnected by friendship, neighborhood, kinship," "prudent, native, beautiful, well-willed , captivating in their modesty, "all in the fitting" gloomy hour of mourning clothes. " Without telling them to avoid the crookedness of their true names, Atur calls them Pampiney, Fyametto, Philomena, Emilia, Lauretta, Neifil, and Elissa - according to their spiritual qualities.
Recalling how many young men and women carried away a terrible plague, Pampinya offers "a decent way to retire in country estates and fill leisure with all kinds of entertainment." Leaving the city, where people were betrayed for lust and debauchery in anticipation of their death, they will protect themselves from unpleasant experiences, while they will behave morally and dignity. In Florence, they do not hold anything: all their relatives died.
The ladies approve Pampinay's thought, and Philomena proposes to invite men with them, because it is difficult for a woman to live with their own minds and men's advice to her is extremely necessary. She objects to Alyssa: it's true, at this time it is difficult to find reliable satellites - the relatives died partly, some went to somewhere, and to appeal to strangers indecently. She suggests looking for a different path to salvation.
During this conversation, the church consists of three young people - Panfilo, Filostratou and Dioneo, all lovely and well-mannered, the youngest of whom is at least twenty five years old. Among those who find themselves in the church are ladies there are their beloved, the rest are with them in kinship. Pampinya immediately invites them to invite.
Neifil, flushed with the embarrassment, expresses in the sense that the young men are good and intelligent, but are in love with some present ladies, and this can cast a shadow on their society. Filomena also objects that the main thing is to live honestly, and the rest will be added.
Young people are happy to invite; Having agreed upon everything, the girls and young men, accompanied by maids and servants, leave the city the next morning. They arrive in a picturesque area, where there is a beautiful palace, and are located there. The word takes Dioneo, the most cheerful and witty, offering to entertain anyone. He is supported by Pampinay, who proposes that someone be their main figure and think about the arrangement of their lives and joys. And so that everyone knows the concerns and joys associated with the primacy, and that nobody should be enviable, this honorary burden should be assigned in turn to each one. The first "lord" they will choose all together, and the next one will be appointed each evening before the evening by the one who was the master on this day. Everyone is unanimously elected by Pampin, and Philomena places her on the head of a laurel wreath,
Having given the servants the necessary orders and asked everyone to refrain from sending unpleasant news, Pampinya allows everyone to disperse; After gourmet breakfast, everyone is welcome to sing, dance and play musical instruments, and then go to rest. At three o'clock, rising from sleep, all gather in the shadow of the corner of the garden, and Pampinya suggests dedicating time to the stories, "for one storyteller is able to take all the listeners," allowing the first day to tell "that everyone is more pleased." Dioneo asks for himself the right to tell each time a story of his choice in order to amuse a society tired of unnecessary mentality, and this right gets.
First story of the first day (story of Panfilo)
Often, without resolving directly to turn to God, people turn to holy apostates who, in their lives, have kept the divine will and are in heaven with the Most High. However, sometimes it happens that people who are misled by the word, choose themselves as such an advocate in the face of the Almighty, who He is condemned to eternal torment. About such "deputy" and is told in a novel.
The protagonist is Messer Chepparello of Prato, a notary public. The wealthy and eminent merchant of Muschiotto Francesi, having received a nobility, moves from Paris to Tuscany, together with the brother of the French king Carl Bezzemelny, whom the Bonifacies fell there there. He needs a man to seek debt from the Burgundians who are famous for their intransigence, zlonravim and dishonesty that could oppose their craftiness, and his choice falls on the Messenger of Chepparello, who in France is called Chalaleto. The one is engaged in manufacturing false documents and falsifies; he is a scumbag, a scandal, a murderer, a blasphemer, a drunkard, a sodomy, a thief, a robber, a shooter and a malicious bone player. "The worst man than him, maybe not born." In gratitude for the service, Mushiwatto promises to silence the word of Chapelletto in the palace and give out a fair amount of the amount that he will demand.
Because there are no cases with Chapelletto, the means are over, and the patron leaves him, he "agrees," because of necessity, goes to Burgundy, where nobody knows, and settlers come from Florence, brothers-usurers.
Suddenly, he becomes ill, and the brothers, feeling that his end is near, discuss how to be. It is impossible to expel a sick old man on the street, but meanwhile he can refuse a confession, and then he can not be baptized in Christian form. If he confesses, then such sins will unfold that no priest will release, and the result will be the same. This can greatly annoy local people who do not approve of their fishing, and lead to pogroms.
Messer Chapelleto hears the conversation of the brothers and promises to arrange them and their affairs in the best way possible.
To the dying lead the famous "holy life" of the elder, and Chapelletto begin confession. When asked when he confessed for the last time, Chapelto, who never confessed, said that he was doing it every week and every time he repented of all the sins committed from birth. He also insists on this general confession this time. The elder asks whether he has sinned with women, and Chapelleto replies: "I am just as virgin, which came out of the mother's womb." Regarding the abdomen, the notary confesses: his sin consisted in the fact that during the fasting he drank water with the same pleasure as a wine drinker, and ate bread with appetite. Speaking of the sin of love for money, Chapelleto claims that he donated a significant portion of his rich heritage to the poor, and then, engaged in trade, constantly shared with the poor. He will admit that he was often angry looking at how people "do everyday mischief without observing the commandments of the Lord, and they are not afraid of God's judgments." He repents that he had spoken about a neighbor who was abusing his wife; once did not counted immediately the money earned for the goods, but it turned out that they are more than necessary; failing to find their owner, he used the excess for charitable affairs.
Two other inessential sins, Chapelletto, uses as an excuse to read the instruction of the holy father, and then he is taken to cry and reports that one day his mother was scolded. Seeing his sincere repentance, the monk believes in him, releases all sins and recognizes him as a saint, offering to burial in his monastery.
Listening to the confession wall of Chapelletto, the brothers are forced to laugh, concluding that "nothing is able to correct its vicious temper:" a villain has lived his whole life, a villain and dying. "
The coffin with the body of the deceased is taken to a monastery church, where the priest paints the holiness of the parishioners, and when buried in a crypt, pilgrims rush from all sides. His holy shaleletto is called, and "they claim that the Lord has already revealed many miracles through him, and continues to show them every day to those who faithfully resorts to him."
The second story of The First Day (story of Neifilly)
The wealthy merchant Gianotto di Civigni, a kind, honest and just man, lives in Paris, who communicates with a Jewish merchant named Abram and is very sad that the soul of such a worthy person will die due to the wrong belief. He begins to persuade Abram to convert to Christianity, proving that Christian faith is flourishing and expanding more and more due to his holiness, but his, Abraham, faith, oppresses and descends to nothing. At first Abram does not agree, but then, through the exhortations of a friend, promises to become a Christian, but only after he visits Rome and observes the life of the governor of God on earth and his cardinals.
Such a decision throws Gianotto, familiar with the practices of the papal court, into dismay, and he tries to dissuade Abram from traveling, but he insists on his. In Rome, he is convinced that at the papal yard flourish frank dissoluteness, greed, gore, charity, envy, pride and even worse vices. Returning to Paris, he announces his intention to be baptized by the following argument: dad, all cardinals, prelates, and courtiers "seek to erase Christian faith from the face of the earth, and they do so extraordinaryly diligently, ..." cleverly and <... > sophisticated ", and yet this faith is spreading more and more - it means that it is truly supported by the Holy Spirit. Giannotto becomes his godfather and gives him the name Giovanni.
Third story of the First Day (Philomena's story)
The story should serve as an illustration of the thought that "foolishness often leads people out of a blissful state and throws them into the abyss of evil, whereas reason liberates the wise from the abyss of misery and gives him a perfect and indestructible calm."
The action takes place at the courtyard of Saladin, the Sultan of Babylon, famous for his victories over the Christian and Saracen kings, which was exhausting frequent wars and excessive luxury. In an attempt to make money, he decides to resort to the help of a Jew, Melchizedek, a usurer, and by cunning to receive the necessary sum from him.
Summoning a Jew, he asks what law he honors for the true: Jewish, Saracensky or Christian. A wise Jew, telling a parable to not get caught up.
One man had an expensive ring and, wishing to keep him in the family, commanded that one of the sons who received the ring be considered his heir, and the rest would have watched him as an elderly man. So it happened in that family. At last, the ring passed to a man who loved all three of his sons alike and could not give preference to anyone. In order not to offend anyone, he ordered two copies of the ring and before the death, secretly from the rest, handed over to each son a ring. After the death of their father, all three claimed the inheritance and honor, giving evidence to the ring, but nobody could determine which ring was genuine, and the question of inheritance remained open. The same can be said of the three laws that God-Father gave to three nations: each of them considers himself the heir, the possessor and executor of the true law,
Realizing that the Jew had escaped the hardship with honor, Saladin openly asks him for help, and then, when he returns, he brings his full amount closer to himself and provides a high and honorable post.
Decameron's second day.
"On the day of the reign of Philomena, we are offered some stories about how, for all people who were subjected to various trials, eventually, beyond all expectation, everything ended well." The
first story of the Second Day (Nephilia's story)
Moral: "Often, one who tries to mock over others , especially over the objects of the sacred ones, laughs at his own expense and himself is ridiculed. "
After death, a German from Treviso named Arrigo is recognized as saint, and to his relics, transferred to the cathedral, lead to the healing of cripples, blind people and patients. At this time in Treviso of Florence come three lycédées: Stecques, Martellino and Marquez, and they want to look at the relics of the saint.
In order to break through the crowd, Martellino pretends to be crippled, whose friends lead to relics. In the cathedral he is put on power, and he pretends to be healed - bends his curved hands and feet, - but suddenly he finds out a certain Florentine, which is revealed to everyone by his deception. He begins to mercilessly beat him, and then Marquez, in order to save his friend, announces to the guards that he would have cut off his wallet. Martellino grabs and leads to the town governor, where some of those present in the cathedral say to him that he and they cut their wallets. The case is a harsh and cruel judge. Under torture Martellino agrees to obey, but with the condition that each of the complainants will indicate where and when he was cut off the wallet. Everyone is called a different time, while Martellino has just arrived in this city. He tries to build his own defense on this,
Meanwhile, Martellino's friends are turning to intercession for a person who has the confidence of the town governor. Summoning Martellino to himself and laughing at this adventure, the town governor releases all three vvvoyasy.
The third day of Decameron.
"On the day of the reign of the Newfiels, they are offered the stories of how people, thanks to their intricacies, sought out what they had passionately dreamed about, or regained their lost."
Eighth Novel of the Third Day (Laurette's Story) A woman of a wealthy
peasant, Ferondo, loves a certain abbot. He promises her to rid her husband of jealousy, and in the reward he asks for permission to possess it, assuring her that "holiness does not diminish from that, for she is in the soul," and that he is going to commit sinful carnal. The woman agrees.
The abbot sings Ferondo with sleepy powder, and he supposedly dies. He is buried in a crypt, whereby the abbot with one trusted monk takes him to the dungeon. Ferondo, who believes that he has fallen into purgatory, is daily subjected to spoilage for ostensibly jealousy displayed during his life, while the abbot, meanwhile, is entertaining with his wife. This is how it lasts for ten months, and suddenly the abbot learns that his mistress is pregnant. Then he decides to let her husband out. The monk tells Ferondo that soon he will rise again and become the father of the child. Once again, having abandoned him, the abbot and the monk return him to the crypt, where he wakes up and begins to call for help. Everyone admits that he has risen, why faith in the sanctity of the abbot increases, and Ferondo heals himself from jealousy.
Decameron's fourth day.
"On the day of the Board of Fylostrato predlahayutsya attention rasskazы at neschastnoy love"
The first day of the fourth Novella (Story Fyamettы)
Hysmonda, daughter of Prince Tancred Salernskoho early stanovytsya vdovoy and, vozvratyvshys in home father not married speshyt Exit and prysmatryvaet themselves worthy beloved. Her choice falls on Guyskardo, a young man of low descent, but noble behavior, a servant in his father's house. Dreaming of a secret date, Gismonde handed him a note in which he would appoint a meeting in an abandoned cave and explain how to get there. She herself goes there according to the ancient secret ladder. Having met in a cave, lovers go to her bedroom, where they spend time. So they meet several times.
One day Tancred comes to his daughter when he walks in the garden, and, waiting for her, accidentally falls asleep. Without noticing him, Guissmond leads Gviskardo into the room, and Tancred becomes a witness to their love affairs. Removing the room out of sight, he tells the servants to grab Gviskardo and to sharpen him in one of the rooms of the palace.
The next day, he goes to his daughter, and, accusing her of giving back to a young man of "the very dark background," she suggests to say something to her defense. The woman is proud, she decides not to ask for anything from her father, but to finish the scores with life, because she is sure that her lover is no longer alive. She sincerely confesses in her love, explaining her with the virtues of Guiccardo and the demands of the flesh, and accuses her of the fact that, being in the control of prejudices, he does not blame her not so much in the fall, but in connection with the unjust man. She claims that true nobility is not in origin, but in deeds, and even poverty indicates only the lack of means, but not the nobility. Taking all the blame on herself, she asks her father to act with her just as he did to Gviskardo, otherwise he promises to lay hands on herself.
Tancred does not believe that the daughter is able to carry out the threat, and, having pulled the heart out of the chest of the murdered Guyskardo, sends him Gismonde in a golden cup. Guysmont turns to the beloved's heart with words that the foe gave him a tomb worthy of his valor. After washing his heart with tears and pressing it to his chest, she pours poison into the bowl and drinks a potion up to a drop. Repentance Tankred performs the last will of his daughter and bury lovers in one tomb.
Fifth Decameron Day.
"On the day of the management of the Fyamettae, attention is given to stories about how the lovers after happiness smacked in the aftermath of the tricks and mischief."
Fifth Fifth Fable (Nephilia's story)
Guidotto of Cremona educates the adoptive daughter of Agnes; After death, he entrusts her to the care of her friend, Jakomino from Pavia, who moves with a girl in Faenza. There two young men marry her; Giannello di Severino and Mingino di Mengolo. They are denied, and they decide to kidnap the girl by force, for which they enter into conspiracy with the servants of Giacomino. Once Giacomino is parted in the evening from the house. The young men get there, and a fight fights between them. The guards rush out to the noise and take them to jail.
In the morning, relatives are asking Giacomino to not complain about reckless youths. He agrees, declaring that the girl is a Faenza native, but he does not know whose daughter she is. He only knows what kind of house a girl was found during the looting of the city by the forces of Emperor Frederick. Father Giannello Bernabuccio, in the scar over his left ear, finds out in Agnes his daughter. The ruler of the city releases both young men from prison, brings them together and gives Agnes a marriage to Mingino.
Decameron's sixth day.
"On the day of the reign of Elissa, attention is given to stories about how people who were hurt by someone's joke paid the same or quick and resourceful answers to prevent loss, danger and dishonor." The
first story of the Sixth Day (Philomena's story)
One day, the renowned Florentine, Donna Oretta, wife of Jeri Spina, walked in her estate with the ladies and men invited to her for lunch, and since they were far to the point where they were going to walk, one of her companions suggested: "Let Donna Oreten, tell you a pretentious story, and you will not notice how you will get, as if almost all the time were going on horse. " However, the narrator was so inept and so hopelessly spoiled the story that Donna Oretta experienced this physical discomfort. "Messer! Your horse is really stumbling. Be kind, let me down, "said the lady with a charming smile. Satellite "immediately caught a hint, wrapped it in a joke, the first laughed and hurried to move on to other topics", and never ended the story begun.
Decameron's seventh day.
"On the day of the reign of Dioneo, they are offered the stories of the things that they have done in the name of love or for the sake of their salvation with their husbands and guesses of their wife."
Seventh Seventh-day novel (Phoenomen's story) The
young resident of Paris, Lodovico, son of the rich man in the trade of Florentine nobleman, serves at the court of the French king and once from the knights who visited the holy places, hears about the beauty of Donna Beatrice, the wife of Egano de Galuzzi of Bologna. When he fell in love with him in absentia, he asked his father to let him go to the pilgrimage, and he secretly arrives in Bologna. When he sees Donna Beatrice, he at first sight falls in love with her and decides to stay in Bologna until he reaches reciprocity, for which, under the name of Anicino, he enters service to Egano and soon enters into that trust.
Once, when Egano leaves for hunting, Anikino opens Beatrice their feelings. Beatrice answers him with reciprocity and invites her to enter her room at night. Since he knows which side of the bed she sleeps, she suggests touching her if she sleeps, and then all his dreams will come true.
At night, feeling the touch of Anikin, Beatrice grabs his arm and begins to roll around in bed so that Egano wakes up. Anikin, in fear of a trap, is trying to escape, but Beatrice keeps him firmly, while telling her husband that his allegedly most faithful servant, Anikino, had appointed her a date at midnight in the garden.
By asking the husband to test the loyalty of the servant, she makes him dress in her dress and go out into the garden, which he does.
Fully enjoying the lover, Beatrice sends him to the garden with a huge club, so that he gently heats Eganos. Anikino hits the host with the words: "So you came here, imagining that I was going and going to deceive my master?"
Egano rushed violently to his wife and said that Anikin was about to test her. "He is so devoted to you that you can not help but love him and not respect him," the wife says. So Egano is convinced that he has a devoted servant and his wife, and thanks to this occasion, Beatrice and Anikino have repeatedly been betrayed to the amusement comforts.
The eighth day of Decameron.
"On the day of Laurette's reign, attention is given to stories about what kind of things a woman and man crave daily, a man with a woman, and a man with a man"
Eighth day tenth story (story of Dioneo)
In Palermo, as in other port cities, there is an order by which merchants arriving in the city place goods in storage, called customs. Customs officers allocate a special room for the goods and enter the goods with the indication of value in the customs book, which makes women dishonest behavior easily learn about the means of the merchant, then to lure him in love networks and clean up the thread.
Sometime in Palermo, on the orders of the hosts with a lot of fabrics, arrives a Florentine named Niccolo da Cignano nicknamed Salabatto. After passing the goods to the warehouse, he goes to walk around the city, and a certain Donna Yankofior, who is aware of his financial situation, is paying attention to him. Through summing up, she assigns a young man a date, and when he comes, he makes every effort to relieve him. They meet several times, she gives him gifts, demanding nothing in return, and finally finds out that he has sold the goods. Then she still caresses him, then leaves the room and returns in tears, telling her that her brother is required to immediately send him a thousand florins, otherwise he will be cut off his head. Believing that before him a rich and decent woman who will return the debt, he gives her five hundred florins, rescued by cloth. Having received money, Jankofior immediately loses interest to him,
In order to escape the persecution of moneylenders, he leaves for Naples, where he tells the treasurer of the Empress of Constantinople and the friend of his family, Pietro delo Canignano, who offers him some plan of action.
Having packed a lot of bales and bought twenty barrels of olive oil, Salabatto returns to Palermo, where he sells goods to the warehouse, declaring to the customs officers that he will not touch this party until the next one arrives. It smelled that the arrived product cost not less than two thousand florins, and the expected - more than three, Jankofiora sends for the merchant.
Salabatto pretends to be happy to invite, and confirms rumors about the value of his goods. To win the trust of the youth, she returns the debt to him, and he gladly spends her time with her.
Once, he comes to her dejected and says that he has to repay from the corsairs who seized the second consignment of goods, otherwise the goods will be taken to Monaco. Jankofier invites him to take money from a well-known usurer at a high interest rate, and Salabatto understands that she is going to lend to her his own money. He agrees, promising to secure payment of the debt by the goods in the warehouse, which will immediately be transferred to the name of the lender. The next day, a trusted broker, Jancofiora, issues Salabatto a thousand florins, and he, paying off debts, departing to Ferrara.
Having made sure that Salabatto is not in Palermo, Jankofier tells the broker to break the warehouse - in the barrels there is sea water, and in the bales there is a pack. Remaining in the fools, she realizes that "as he cuddles, he will respond."
Decameron's ninth day.
"On the day of Emily's rule, everyone tells us about what he likes and what he likes more about." The third story of Ninth Day (Philostrato's story)
The aunt leaves the painter Calandrino a legacy of two hundred lire, and he intends to buy the property, as if he does not understand that "the land bought for this amount will be enough only to make the balls out of it." His buddies, Bruno and Buffalmacco, want the money together to bite and send him Nello, who says Calandrino, that he looks bad. The same is confirmed by Buffalmacco and Bruno. According to their advice, Calandrino goes to bed and sends a urine to the doctor for analysis. Dr. Simone, whose friends had managed to warn, says Calandrino, that he had become pregnant. Do not hesitate to the doctor, Calandrino shouts at his wife: "It's all because you want to be on top!" The doctor promises to frightened Calandrino to save him from pregnancy for six fat-filled capons and five liras in a trifle. The buddies are peeping from the soul And three days later, the doctor says Calandrino that he is healthy. Calandrino praises the dignity of Dr. Simone, and only his wife guesses that all this has been tuned.
Decameron's tenth day.
"On the day of Panfill's administration, stories about people who have shown generosity and generosity in heartfelt, as well as in other things are being offered."
Tenth Tenth Tale (Tale of Dionneau) The Young Gwaltyeri, the eldest of the Marcuses of Salutzky, the subjects persuade to marry to continue kind, and even suggest to find him a bride, but he agrees to marry only of his choice. He marries a poor peasant girl named Griseld, warning her that she will have to please him in everything; she should not wrath at him for anything and obey him in everything. The girl is charming and courteous, she is obedient and alert to her husband, affectionate with her subjects, and all love her, recognizing her high virtues.
Meanwhile, Gwaltyeri decides to experience Griseldy's patience and blames her for not giving birth to a son, and her daughter, rather than to be very disturbed by the court, and without that allegedly dissatisfied with her low descent. A few days later, he sends to her a servant who announces that he has an order to kill her daughter. A servant brings a girl to Gwaltyery, and he sends her up for education to a relative in Bologna, asking no one to discover whose daughter is.
After some time, Griselda gives birth to a son, whose husband also takes her from her, and then declares to her that, upon the insistence of her subjects, she has to marry another, and drive her out. She gives away her son, who is sent for education to the same place as her daughter.
Sometime later, Gwaltyeri shows all the false letters in which the pope supposedly allows him to part with Griselda and marry another, and Griselda humbly, in one shirt, returns to the parent's home. Gwaldieri rumors rumors that he will marry the daughter of Count Panagoga, and sends for Griselde, so that she, as a servant, will bring order in order to visit guests. When the "bride" arrives - and Gwaltyeri decided to give her daughter a bride for her bride, - Griselda meets her warmly,
Convinced that Griseldy's patience is inexhaustible, driven by the fact that she says only good about a girl who should replace her on a matrimonial bed, he admits that she simply arranged for Griseld's check, and declares that his imaginary bride and her brother are their own children. He brings his father Griseldy closer to his father, Giannukole, who has since lived in his house, like the marquis's father-in-law. Gwaltyeri's daughters are looking for an enviable party, and her husband Griseldu is extremely honorable and lives with her for a long time and happily. "Hence the consequence is that even in the poor hut dwell celestial creations, but in the royal palaces there are creatures, which would be more suitable to pig pigs than to command people."