Literature of antiquity and the Middle Ages - Summary 2019 year
Publius Vergilius Maro (70-19 BC e)
Aeneis - Heroic Poem (19 BC e)
When on the earth began the age of heroes, the gods often went to mortal women, so that from them bhagatyrs were born. Another thing is the goddesses: they only rarely went to mortal husbands to give birth to their sons. So from the goddess Fetidi was born the hero of the Iliad - Achilles; so the goddess Aphrodite was born the hero "Aeneid" - Aeneas.
The poem begins in the middle of the Aeneas way. It floats to the west, between Sicily and the northern coast of Africa - where exactly Phoenician villagers are now building the city of Carthage. Here, a terrible storm, sent by Juno, flies on him: at his request, God Eol released to the will all the winds under his control. "The clouds of sudden sky and light abduct at sight, / The darkness on the waves is light, the thunder rushed, zippers shine, / The inevitable death from all over appeared to the Trojans. / The ropes strangle, and afterwards the boatmen cry out. / The coldness of Aeneas is bound, he hugs his hands to the luminaries: / "Three times, four times that blessed who under the walls of Troy / In front of the eyes of fathers in battle met with death! .."
Aeneas saves Neptune, which accelerates the winds, smoothes the waves. The sun is clarified, and the last seven ships of Aeneas from the last forces are being razed to an unfamiliar shore.
It's Africa, here is the young Queen Didon. An evil brother drove her out of the distant Phenicia, and now she and her fellow comrades build a new city of Carthage. "Happy are those for whom strong walls already rise!" - exclaims Aeneas and looks at the erect temple of Juno, painted with pictures of the Trojan War: the talk of it already flew to Africa. Didon welcomes Aeneas and his companions - the same fugitives as she herself. In honor of them, a feast is handled, and at this feast, Aeneas leads his famous story about the fall of Troy.
The Greeks could not take Troy for ten years and decided to take it by cunning. With the help of Athena-Minerva, they built a huge wooden horse, in the floor of the womb they hid their best heroes, and left the camp themselves and flee to the entire fleet behind the nearby island. There was a rumor: the gods stopped helping them, and they sailed to their homeland, placing this horse as a gift to Minerva - a huge one, so that the Trojans did not bring him to the gate, because if they had a horse, they would themselves go to war with Greece and get victory Trojans jump, break the wall, import a horse through a break. The Seerian Laocoon admonishes them not to do this - "fear the enemies and the gifts of those who bring!" - but two giant Neptune snakes swarm out of the sea, throw themselves at Laocoon and two of his young sons, soaked with rings, poisoned with poison: after this nobody doubts, Horse in the city, on the Trojans tired of the holiday, the night falls, the Greek leaders slip out of the wooden monster, the Greek troops quietly swim up from behind the island - the enemy in the city.
Aeneas slept; Hector is in his dream: "Troy has died, run, look for a new place over the sea!" Aenei rushes to the roof of the house - the city flamms from all sides, the flame rises to the sky and reflects in the sea, cries and groans from all sides. He convenes his friends for the last battle: "For the defeated of salvation, one is not to dream of salvation!" They strike on narrow streets; in their eyes a captive Cassandra prince is cast into the prison; in the eyes of them the old king Priam perishes - "the head is cut off from the shoulders, and without a name - the body. " He is looking for death, but he is the mother of Venus: "Troy is doomed, save the father and son!" Father Aeneas is a faint Anhis, son is the boy Askaniy-Yul; with an impotent old man on his shoulders, leading a helpless child by the hand, Aenei leaves the collapsing city. With surviving Trojans, he hides on a wooded mountain, in the far bay builds ships and leaves his homeland. Need to swim, but where?
Begins six years of wanderings. One shore does not accept them, on the other plague rages. On the sea crossings the monsters of the old myths - Scilla with Kharibda, predatory harpies, one-eyed kiclops - rage. On the land, sorrowful meetings: here is a shrub with blood on the grave of the Trojan prince, here is the widow of the great Hector, who has been imprisoned, and the best Trojan prophet is languishing in a distant foreign country; now he is abandoned by the warrior of Odysseus himself, abandoned by his own, and he is beaten to his former enemies. One oracle sends Aeneas to Crete, the other to Italy, the third fears of hunger: "You will nibble your own tables!" - The fourth tells to go to the kingdom of the dead and learn there about the future there. On the last parking lot, in Sicily, drowsy Anhis dies; further - the storm, the Carthaginian coast, and the end of the story of Aeneas.
People are watching the deeds of the gods. Juno and Venus do not love each other, but here they serve each other: Venus does not want his son to test, Juno does not want Rome, which threatens her Carthage, to rise in Italy, let Eney remain in Africa! The love of Dido and Aeneas, the two exiles, begins to begin, the most human in all ancient poetry. They connect in a thunderstorm, during a hunt, in a mountain cave: lightning instead of torches, and groans of mountain nymphs instead of marriage songs. This is not good, because Enei wrote another fate, and Jupiter follows this fate. He sends a dream to Eney Mercury: "Do not hesitate to wait, Italy is waiting for you, and Rome will wait for your descendants!" Aenei suffers painfully. "Gods are commanding you - I will not leave you I will! .." - he says to Didone, but for a loving woman it is empty words. She prays: "Stay!"; then: "Lost!"; then: "Smash! if Rome and Carthage will be, then there will be a terrible war between yours and my descendants! "In vain. She sees from the palace tower the long sails of the Aegean ships, folding in the palace a funeral fire and, rising to him, rushes to the sword.
For the sake of the unknown future, Aeneas left Troy, left Carthage, but this is not all. His comrades are tired of wandering; in Sicily, while Aeneas performs memorial games on the tomb of Anhis, their wives lit Eneev's ships to stay here and not to swim anywhere. Four ships are dying, the tired remain, on the last three Aeneas reaches Italy.
Here, near the foot of Vesuvius, is the entrance to the kingdom of the dead, Aeneas is waiting for a shrill prophetess Sivilla. With the magic golden branch in the hands of Eney under the earth: how Odysseus asked the shadow of Tirezia about her future, so Annie wants to ask the shadow of her father Anhis about the future of their descendants. It crosses the Aid River Stix, due to which people do not have a return. He sees a reminder of Troy - the shadow of a friend, mutilated by the Greeks. He sees a reminder of Carthage - the shadow of Dido with a wound in his chest; he says: "I'm yours, queen, left my bank! .." - but she is silent. To the left of him is Tartarus, there sinners are tormented: god-bourgeois, father-in-law, oaths, traitors. To his right are the fields of the Blessed One, where his father Anchis awaits. In the middle is the river of forgetting Aeta, and the spirits flutter over it, which are destined to purify in it and appear on the light. Among these souls, Anhis points to his son on the heroes of the future of Rome: Romulus, the founder of the city, and Augustus, his rebellion, and legislators, and Tyrannists, and all who will affirm the power of Rome over. the whole world. Every nation has its own gift and duty: to the Greeks it is thought and beauty, to the Romans, justice and order: "Let animate corn be better than others, / Believe; let the living marble clear, / Will be in the courts to speak more beautiful, the motion of the sky / Circular will be determined, called ascending stars; / Yours, the Roman, the duty is to rule over the rule of the peoples! / Here is your art: to prescribe the laws of the world, / Unfinished sparing and overthrow the rebellious. " Every nation has its own gift and duty: to the Greeks it is thought and beauty, to the Romans, justice and order: "Let animate corn be better than others, / Believe; let the living marble clear, / Will be in the courts to speak more beautiful, the motion of the sky / Circular will be determined, called ascending stars; / Yours, the Roman, the duty is to rule over the rule of the peoples! / Here is your art: to prescribe the laws of the world, / Unfinished sparing and overthrow the rebellious. " Every nation has its own gift and duty: to the Greeks it is thought and beauty, to the Romans, justice and order: "Let animate corn be better than others, / Believe; let the living marble clear, / Will be in the courts to speak more beautiful, the motion of the sky / Circular will be determined, called ascending stars; / Yours, the Roman, the duty is to rule over the rule of the peoples! / Here is your art: to prescribe the laws of the world, / Unfinished sparing and overthrow the rebellious."
This is a long-term future, but on the way to it is a near future, and it is not easy. "You suffered from the sea - you will suffer on land," says Anei Sivilla, "a new war awaits you, a new Achilles and a new marriage with a stranger; You are in trouble in spite of you, do not give up, and move boldly! "The second half of the poem begins, for the" Odyssey "-" Iliad".
At the bottom of the road from the Sycamore Aida's places - the middle of the Italian coast, the mouth of the Tibara, the region of Lazio. Here lives the old wise king Latin with his people - Latins; next - the tribe of rutules with the young hero Tournom, a descendant of the Greek kings. Here comes Aeneas; Having landed, the tired travelers dine, putting vegetables on flat cakes. Eaten the vegetables, eating cakes. "There are no tables left!" - jokes Yul, the son of Aeneas. "We are on target! - exclaims Aeneas. - The prophecy came true: "You will nibble your own tables." We did not know where we were going, we now know where we were heading. " And he sends ambassadors to Tsar Latina to ask for peace, the union and hands of his daughter Lavinia. Latin is glad: the forest gods have long been telling him that his daughter will come out for a stranger, and their offspring will conquer the whole world. But the goddess Juno was furious - her enemy, the Trojan, won over her power and is about to erect a new Troy: "Be a war, be the common blood between tests and your son-in-law!" <...> If I do not bow to heavenly gods, I will erect the sublime! "
In Latia there is a temple; when the world - its doors are locked up, when the war - is revealed; With the push of his own hand, Juno opens the iron doors of the war. On the hunt, Trojan hunters mistakenly drove the royal reindeer, now they are not hostages to the Latins. Tsar Latin in despair establishes power; the young Tournai, who himself married to the prince Lavinia, and now rejected, gathers a mighty war against the aliens: here is the giant of the Messianic, and the invulnerable Messup, and the Camilla amazon. Aenei is also looking for the Allies: he floats around Tiber, where King Evander, the leader of the Greek settlers from Arcadia, lives in the place of the future of Rome. On the future forum cattle graze, in the future Capitol grows thorny, in a poor hut, the king treats the guest and gives him four hundred fighters, led by his son, young Pallant. Meanwhile, the mother of Aeneas, Venus, goes to the smithy of her husband Vulcan, so that he bound her son with divinely strong armor, as he once did to Achillou. On the shield of Achilles, the whole world was depicted, on the shield of Aeneas, the whole of Rome: the wolf with Romulus and Remus, the abduction of the Sabinians, the victory over the Galleries, the criminal Catiline, the valiant Cato, and, finally, the triumph of Augustus over Anthony and Cleopatra, vividly memorable to the readers of Virgil. "I am glad to see Aeneas on shields of paintings, not knowing the events, and raising the shoulder and glory and the fate of the descendants."
But while Aenea is in the distance, Turn with the Italian army comes to his stand: "As the ancient Troy fell, let it fall again: for Aeneas, his destiny, and for me is my destiny!" Two friend-Trojans, brave and handsome Nys Evlias, go to the night raid through the enemy's state to get to Aeneas and call him for help. In silent darkness with silent blows, they make their way among the sleeping enemies and go out on the road - but here at dawn their enemy passes off. Eurasia falls into captivity, Nis - one against three hundred - is thrown at him for relief, but perishes, the heads of both waists on the peaks, and furious Italians are attacked. Turn lights the Trojan fortifications, breaks into a gap, crushes dozens of enemies, Juno inhales power in him, and only the will of Jupiter puts the limit on his successes. Gods are excited Venus and Juno blamed each other in a new war and intercede for their pets, but Jupiter stopped them with anxiety: if the war had begun, "... let everyone share / battle woes and luck: for all the same is Jupiter. / Rock will find a way."
Meanwhile, finally, Aeneas returns with Pallant and his detachment; the young Askaniy-Yul, the son of Aeneas, throws himself out of the camp for a raid to meet him; the troops are united, boils the general battle, the chest in the chest, the leg to the leg, as once under Troy. Fierce Pallant rushes forward, commits a feat for a feat, converges, at last, with an invincible Turn - and falls from his spear. Turn opens the belt and bandage from him, and the body in armor nobly allows the comrades to take out of battle. Aeneas is hurting revenge, but Juno rescues Thurna from him; Aeneas converges with the fierce Mezenziemi, wounds him, the young son Mezentsee Loves shields his father, - both die, and the dying Messianic asks to bury them together. The day is over, two troops are buried and mourn their fallen. But the war continues, and still the very youngest and most blossoming are killed: after Nis and Evriala, after the Pallanta and Lavas come the turn of the Amazon Camille. Grown up in the woods, devoted himself to hunter Diana, with an onion and an ax she strikes against the oncoming Trojans and perishes, beaten by a wire.
Seeing the death of their fighters, hearing the sad sobbing of the old Latina and the young Lavinia, feeling the oncoming rock, Tourn scribbles Eney: "Take the troops, and we will solve our dispute with the duel." If Turn throws - the Trojans go out to look for a new land, if Eney - the Trojans are building their own city here and living in an alliance with the Latin. There are altars, sacrifices have been made, oaths are pronounced, two armies are standing on two sides of the field. And again, as in the Iliad, suddenly the ceasefire breaks. In the sky there is a sign: the eagle flies to a swan flock, pulls out prey from it, but a white flock hits the eagle from all sides, makes it throw a swan and turns to flee. "This is our victory over the alien!" - the Latin gendarme shouts and mutes his spear in the Trojan system. The troops are thrown at each other, a general battle begins,
And from heaven, looking at them, suffering, Juno, also feeling the coming rock. She appeals to Jupiter with the last request:
"Whatever will happen by the will of your fate and yours - but do not let the Trojans impose on Italy their name, tongue, and temper! Let Latius remain Lacimus and Latin in Latin! Troy died - let the name of Troy perish! "And Jupiter replies to her:" It will be so. " From the Trojans and Latins, from the routals, the Etruscans and the Evandra Arcadians, a new people will appear and spread their glory all over the world.
Aeneas and Tourn found each other: "shield, shield with a shield, and the air is filled with thunder." Jupiter stands in the sky and holds the scales with lots of two heroes on two bowls. Turon hits the sword - the sword breaks down on a shield forged by Vulcan. Annie hits a spear - the spear pierces Tournus and the shield and armor, he falls, wounded in the thigh. Lifting his hand, he says: "You have defeated; the prince is yours; I do not ask mercy for myself, but if there is a heart in you, please, for my father, and you were Anchis! "Aeneas stops with a sword raised - but his glance falls on the belt and Tournai's band which he removed from the murdered Pallanta , short-lived Eneev friend. "No, you will not leave!" Pallant revenges you! "- exclaims Aeneas and pierces the heart of the adversary; "And hugged by the death of the cold / The body has left life and with a moan flies to the shadows".
So the "Aeneid" ends.