Literature of antiquity and the Middle Ages - Summary 2019 year


Ramayana (III century. BC e. - II c. n e.)

"Acts of Ram" is an ancient Indian epic, consisting of 7 books and about 24 thousand double-faced slovaks; attributed to the legendary sage of Valmiks (Vabmiki).
Once the ruler of the kingdom of demon rachasas on the island of Lanka was ten-headed Ravana. He received from the god Brahma a gift of invulnerability, thanks to which no one, except for man, could kill him, and therefore, humiliated and chastised with impunity the heavenly gods. For the sake of destroying Ravana, God Vishnu decides to be born on earth as a mere mortal. Just at this time, the childless king, Ayodhya Dasaratha, makes a great sacrifice in order to find the heir. Vishnu enters the womb of his elder wife Kaushalii, and she gives birth to the avatar (avatar) of Vishnu-Rama. The second wife of Dasaratha, Kaikaei, at the same time gives birth to another son, Bharat, and the third, Sumir, to Lakshman and Shatrughnu.
Already a young man has gained fame with many military and pious exploits, Rama is headed to the country of Videha, whose king, Janak, invites wrestlers claiming to the hand of his daughter of a beautiful City. In his time, Janaka, plowing the sacred field, found Sita in his furrow, adopted and raised her, and now she intends to marry the one who bends the miracle bow, granted to him by the god Siva. Hundreds of kings and princes are vainly trying to do this, but only Rame succeeds not only in bending the bow, but in breaking it in two. Janaka celebrates the wedding of Rama and Sita solemnly, and for many years, the spouses live in Ayodhya in the Dasaratha family in happiness and harmony.
But Dasaratha decides to proclaim Rama his heir. Upon learning of this, the second wife of Dasaratha Kaikaei, incited by his maidservant, the evil hunchback Manthara, reminds the king that one day he vowed to fulfill two of her desires. Now she expresses these desires: to expel her from Ayodhya Rama for fourteen years and to anoint her own son Bharat as the heir. In vain, Dasaratha begs Kaikayya to refuse her demands. And then Rama, insisting that his father remain faithful to the word given to him, goes away to the forest exile himself, and Sita and his loyal brother Lakshman follow him voluntarily. No power to endure separation from his beloved son, the king Dasharatha dies. Bharata should rise to the throne, but a noble prince, believing that the kingdom does not belong to him rightly, but Rame, goes to the forest and persuades his brother to return to Ayodhya. Rama rejects Bharata's insistence, remaining faithful to her son's duty. Bharata is compelled to return to the capital alone, but in the sign of the fact that he does not consider himself a full ruler, he puts on the throne of the sandal of Rama.
Meanwhile, Rama, Lakshmana and Sita are settled in their hut in the forest of Dandaka, where Ram, guarding the rest of the holy hermits, exterminates monsters and demons annoying them. Once upon a time, Rama's hut is the ugly Shurpanakha's sister. Luving in Rama, she is trying to swallow Sita out of jealousy, and the angry Dakshmana cuts her sword with her nose and ears. In humiliation and rage, Shurpanakha incite the attack on the brothers of a huge army of Rakshas, headed by the fierce Khara. However, the rain of irresistible arrows Rama destroys both Kharu and all his warriors. Then Shurpanakha turns to Ravana for help. She encourages him not only to take revenge for Khara, but, seducing his beauty of Sita, kidnap her from Rama and take her to wife. On a magic chariot, Ravana flies from Lanka to the forest of Dandaku and orders one of his subjects, the demon Mariche, turn into a golden deer and distract Rama and Lakshman away from their housing. When Rama and Lakshmana, at the request of Sita, deepen after the deer into the woods, Ravana forcibly places Sita in his chariot and transports it through the air to Lanka. He is trying to block the way of the king of the kite of Jotayus, but Ravana fatally hurts him, cutting off his wings and legs. In Lanka, Ravana offers Sith's wealth, honor and power, unless she agrees to become his wife, and when Sita contemptuously rejects all his claims, concludes her is in custody and threatens to punish death for her obstinacy.
Without finding Sita in the hut, Ram and Lakshmana go to her quest for grief. From the dying kite of Jotayus, they hear who was her kidnapper, but they do not know where he was with her. Soon they meet the king of monkeys Sugriva, deprived of the throne by his brother Valin, and the wise counselor of Sugriva, the monkey of Hanuman, the son of the wind god Vayu. Sugriva asks Rama to return the kingdom to her, and instead promises help in the searches of Sita. After Rama kills Valina and again elects Sugriva to the throne, he sends out to all parts of the world his campers, instructing them to find traces of Sita. It is possible to do this by sending monkeys, headed by Hanuman, sent to the south. From the kite of Sampatti, the brother of the deceased Jatajus, Hanuman finds out that Sita is captive in Lanka. Pushing away from the mountain of Mahendra, Hanuman falls on the island, and there, diminishing to the size of the cat and encircling the entire capital of Ravana, finally finds Sita in a grove, among the trees of Ashoka, under the protection of fierce rakshas women. Hanuman is able to secretly meet Sita, convey the message of Ram and comfort her with hope for a quick release. Then Hanuman returns to Rame and tells him about his adventures.
With a myriad army of monkeys and their allies, Bear Rama acts on a trip to Lanka. Upon hearing about this, Ravana collects a military council in his palace, on which the brother of Ravana Vibhishan demands to return to Sita Rama in order to avoid the death of the kingdom of Rakshas. Ravana rejects his demand, and then Vibhisana goes to the side of Rama, whose army has already defeated the camp on the shores of the ocean opposite Lanka.
According to Nala, the son of the heavenly builder of Vishvakarman, monkeys build a bridge across the ocean. They fill the ocean with rocks, trees, stones, through which the Rama's army is transported to the island. There, at the walls of the capital of Ravana, a brutal battle begins. Rame and his loyal companions Lakshman, Hanuman, nephew Sugriva Angade, the king of the Bears Jambawan and other brave warriors resist the hordes of Rakshas with the warlords of Ravana Vajradamshtra, Akampana, Prahastoy, Kumbhakarnaya. Among them, the son of Ravana Indrajit, who is knowledgeable in the art of magic, is particularly dangerous. Yes, he succeeds in becoming invisible and mortally wound his snake-rifles, Rama and Lakshmana. However, on the advice of Jambawan, Hanuman flies far to the north and brings to the battlefield a mountain of Kailashi mountains, covered with healing herbs, which heals royal brothers. One by one, the leaders of the Rakshas fall dead; From the hands of Lakshmana, the intruder seemed invulnerable. And then on the battlefield Ravan himself appears, who enters a decisive battle with Rama. In the course of this duel, Rama cuts off all ten Ravana heads in turns, but each time they grow up again. And only when Rama strikes Ravan in the heart of an arrow given to him by Brahma, Ravana dies.
The death of Ravana means the end of the battle and the complete destruction of the Rakshas. Rama proclaims the virtuous Vibhishan king of Lanka, and then orders to bring Sita. And here, in the presence of thousands of witnesses, monkeys, bears and Rakshas, he expresses suspicion of marital infidelity and refuses to accept him again as a wife. Sita relies on the divine court: she asks Lakshman to build a funeral fire for her, enters into his flame, but the flame spares her, and the fire god Agni, who has risen from the fire, confirms her innocence. Rama explains that he himself had no doubt in Sita, but only wanted to convince him of the faultlessness of her warrior's behavior. After reconciliation with Sith Ram, he returns solemnly to Ayodhya, where Bharata gladly gives him a place on the throne.
However, Rama and Sita's misconceptions did not end there. One day, Ramea reports that his subjects do not believe in the goodness of Sita and grieve, seeing in her a corrupting example for their own wives. Rama, as it is hard for him, is forced to submit to the will of the people and orders Lakshmana to take Sita into the woods to the hermits. Sita with a deep bitterness, but steadfastly accepts a new blow of fate, and she is taken under the patronage of the wise wanderer Valmyki.
In his abode in the City two sons are born from Rama - Kush and Lava. Valmiki brings them up, and when they grow up, he trains their poem composed by them about the deeds of Ram, the very Ramayana, which became subsequently well-known. During one of the royal sacrifices, Kusha and Lava read this poem in the presence of Rama. By many indications, Rama recognizes his sons, asks where their mother is, and sends out for Valmiki and Sita. Valmiki in turn confirms Sita's innocence, but Rama wants Sita once more to prove her purity of life to the whole people. And then Sita, as the last testimony, asks the Earth to put her in her maternal embrace. The earth opens in front of it and takes it into its womb. According to the god Brahma, now only in heaven is destined Rame and Sity to re-gain each other.