Literature of antiquity and the Middle Ages - Summary 2019 year
Beowulf - The epic poem (VIII-IX cc.)
In Denmark, the King of the glorious Skilding tribe named Hrodgar was once ruled. He was especially fortunate in wars with his neighbors and, having accumulated great wealth, he decided to immortalize the memory of himself and his rule. He decided to build a magnificent feast hall for the royal wife. Khrdghar did not spare neither the forces nor the means for the construction, and the most skillful masters built a hall for him, which was not equal in all white light. As soon as the decor of the strange halls was completed, Khrodgar began to feast in her with his warriors, and the entire neighborhood was announced by the sound of expensive cups and songs of royal singers. But the funny celebrations of the glorious Hrodgar did not last long, the frothy beer and the golden honey spilled for a long time, shortly sounded funny songs ... The noise of the feasts of King Hrodgara reached the lair of the terrible enormous grandeur of Grendel, who lived nearby in the foul swamps. Grendel hated people, and their fun excited malice in him ... And one night at night, this monster crept up loud to the hall of Hrodgar, where, after a long boisterous feast, hapless soldiers settled down to rest ... Grendel grabbed thirty knights and dragged into his lair. The cries of horror were replaced by clicks of fun in the morning, and nobody knew where the terrible calamity came from, where the knights of Khrodgarov were going. After long defeats and guesses, carelessness overtaken fears and fears, and Hradrap with his warriors again set up feasts in a marvelous hall. And again the trouble came on - the monstrous Grendel began to take away several knights each night. Soon all had already guessed that it was Grendel who invaded the room at night and steals peacefully sleeping warriors; no one dared to join martial arts with a wild monster. Hrodgar prayed the gods in vain to help him get rid of a terrible misfortune. The feasts in the hall stopped, fun, and Grendel only occasionally climbed there at night searching for prey, sowing around horror.
The rumor of this terrible calamity reached the land of the Gauts (in southern Sweden), where the glorious King Higelak ruled. And then the most famous knight of Higelak, the hero Beowulf, tells his master that he wants to help King Hrodgar and will enter into a fight with the monstrous Grendel. Despite all the attempts to dissuade him from being conceived, Beowulf supplies the ship, chooses the fourteen most brave warriors from his wife and floats to the banks of Denmark. Encouraged by the happy omen, Beowulf landed on land. Immediately the aliens are approaching the coast guard, asking them about the purpose of the arrival, and hurries with a report to King Hrodgar. Beowulf and his comrades meanwhile wear armor, disassemble the weapon, and on the road paved with colorful stones, they are sent to the hall of King Hrodgar. And everyone who sees the sailors who came from the sea looks at their sturdy stuffing, whimsical helmets, decorated with pictures of bergamot, sparkling chain letters and wide swords, heavy spears, which the heroes carry with ease. Wolfgang, one of the approximate King of Hrodgar, meets an overseas wife. Asked them, he reports to the king - they say, arrived important guests, the leader calls himself Beowulf. Hrodgar, this glorious name is known, he knows that the valiant Beowulf is equal to thirty mighty heroes, and the king is more likely to call the guests, hoping that with them came the deliverance from the great misfortune. Wolfgang sends royal greetings and invitation to the visiting guests. Wolfgang, one of the approximate King of Hrodgar, meets an overseas wife. Asked them, he reports to the king - they say, arrived important guests, the leader calls himself Beowulf. Hrodgar, this glorious name is known, he knows that the valiant Beowulf is equal to thirty mighty heroes, and the king is more likely to call the guests, hoping that with them came the deliverance from the great misfortune. Wolfgang sends royal greetings and invitation to the visiting guests. Wolfgang, one of the approximate King of Hrodgar, meets an overseas wife. Asked them, he reports to the king - they say, arrived important guests, the leader calls himself Beowulf. Hrodgar, this glorious name is known, he knows that the valiant Beowulf is equal to thirty mighty heroes, and the king is more likely to call the guests, hoping that with them came the deliverance from the great misfortune. Wolfgang sends royal greetings and invitation to the visiting guests.
Beowulf with his wife, making spears in an angle, folded shields and swords, in some helmets and armor follow Wolfgang; only two warriors remain to guard the gun. Beowulf greets Khrodgara with a bow and says that I suppose I am the niece of the King of the Gautets of Hiegelak hearing about the disasters that the Danes endure from the terrible Grendel and sailed to fight the monster. But, deciding on this feat, Beowulf asks the king, so that only him and his comrades are allowed to go to the monster; in the event of the death of Beowulf - to armor him (best of which is not in all white light, for its blast was blotted by Wylund) was sent to King Higelak. Hrodgar thanks Beowulf for his willingness to help and tells him in detail how Grendel climbed into his hall and how many villains he had lost. Then the king invites Beowulf and his companions to the common feast and invites honey. At the command of the king, the bench at the table was cleared for Gautes at once, the servants blow them with honey and beer, and the singer delights their hearing with a merry song.
Seeing with which honor Hrodgar takes strangers, many of the Danes begin to look at them with envy and discontent. One of them, named Unfert, dares even to turn to Beowulf with bold words. He recalls the reckless race between Beowulf and Brech, their attempt to overcome the waves of a terrible sea. Then Breca won the contest, and why he was afraid of Beowulf's life, if he stayed at night in the hall. Surprisingly by the wisdom of all those present, Beowulf answers unthinking words of Unferta. He explains that the voyage was conceived only for the sake of protecting sea routes from monsters, but there was really no competition. In turn, wishing to test the courage of Unferta, Beowulf suggests to himself stay at night in the hall and keep the defense from Grendel. Unfert is silent and no longer dares to bully, and in the hall reigns noise and fun.
The feast would continue for a long time, but King Hrodgar reminds that the guests will have a night battle, and everyone will stand up to say goodbye to the brave ones. Parenting, Khrodgar promises to Beowulf that he, if he saves the Danes from the grave misfortune, can demand everything he does not want and any desire will be fulfilled at once. When the people of Hrodgar left, Beowulf orders to lock the doors with strong bolts. As he prepares for sleep, he takes off armor and remains completely unarmed, since he knows that in the battle with Grendel no weapon will help and need to be hoped only on his own strength. Beowulf falls asleep. Extremely at midnight, the monstrous Grendel sneaks up to the hall, blows the heavy backside for a moment and thrills eagerly on the sleeping Gauts. Here he grabbed one of them, tore off the unhappy body and swallowed prey with huge pieces. Having coped with the first one Grendel is ready to devour another warrior. But here's a powerful hand grabbing him for a paw, and so that the crunch of bones is raging. Frightened by fear, Grendel wants to run, but not here, the mighty Beowulf jumps from the bench and, without letting out the monster's foot, throws himself at him. A terrible battle begins. Everything is circling and crumbling, waking warriors in horror. But Beowulf wins the top, he grabbed Greedel's paw firmly, without letting him turn around. Finally, the cartilage and veins in the shoulder of the monsters can not withstand and tear, the foot of the monster stays in the hands of Beowulf, and Grendel breaks out of the hall and runs, expiring with blood, breathing on their swamps. A terrible battle begins. Everything is circling and crumbling, waking warriors in horror. But Beowulf wins the top, he grabbed Greedel's paw firmly, without letting him turn around. Finally, the cartilage and veins in the shoulder of the monsters can not withstand and tear, the foot of the monster stays in the hands of Beowulf, and Grendel breaks out of the hall and runs, expiring with blood, breathing on their swamps. A terrible battle begins. Everything is circling and crumbling, waking warriors in horror. But Beowulf wins the top, he grabbed Greedel's paw firmly, without letting him turn around. Finally, the cartilage and veins in the shoulder of the monsters can not withstand and tear, the foot of the monster stays in the hands of Beowulf, and Grendel breaks out of the hall and runs, expiring with blood, breathing on their swamps.
In the morning there is no end to jubilation. All Danish warriors headed by UNFERt are respectfully silent while Beowulf calmly talks about the night battle. All the tables are inverted, the walls are spattered with the blood of the monster, and on the floor its scary paw lies. Grateful King Khrodgar, a connoisseur of ancient tales, puts the song into the memory of this battle. And the feast of the mountain begins. King and Queen bring to Beowulf rich gifts - gold, precious weapons and horses. Let's eat greetings, beer and honey in the river. Finally, celebrating the victory, everyone calmly settle down for a night in a strange hall. And again the trouble came over. Monstrous Grendel's mother is at midnight to take revenge on her son. She burst into the hall, all sleeping from the places, from the fright, not even having time to dress. But Grendel's mother is frightened by so many people, and, seizing only a warrior, rushes away. In the morning, there is no limit to grief - it turns out, Khrodgar Esker's favorite advisor died. The king promises generously to award Beowulf, tearfully praying him to pursue a monster in the swamps, to which nobody dared to walk before. And now the wife, led by Khrodgar and Beowulf, goes to the abandoned swamp.
Hurrying, they climb to the edge of the marsh there, where a distinctly visible bloody footprint. Next to the shore is the head of the poor Escher. Water is filled with sea monsters, one of them overtakes the boom of Beowulf. Addressing Hrodgar, Beowulf asks if he destroys his death, to send all the gifts to King Higelak. Then, taking the ancient famous sword, the hero jumps into the oomut, and the waves hide him. Beowulf goes down all day, and sea monsters can not hurt him, because there are unbreakable armor on it. At last the hero reaches the bottom, and Grendel's mother hits him at once. Beowulf beats her with a sword, but the thick scales are not inferior to ordinary steel. The monkey jumps to Beowulf, presses him with all his weight, and it would be bad for a knight, do not remember in time the huge ancient sword forged by giants. Cuddly snatching out from under the monster He grabs a sword and grandson Grendel's neck is cut off all the time. One blow solved the affair, the monster falls dead to the feet of Beowulf. As a trophy, Beowulf takes away the head of a monster, he wants to take the ancient sword, but there is only one handle left by the sword, for he was daunting, the battle was barely over.
Comrades Beowulf are already desperate to see him alive, but here he appears from the bloody waves. It was noisy and fun that settled down that evening at the table at King Khrodgar's desk, feasting at midnight and going to bed, nothing now being afraid. The next day Gaute began to go home. King Hodghar gave generously to everyone, cordially parting with them. On the return of Beowulf everywhere awaited honor and respect, about his feat composed songs, in his honor rang cups. King Higelak bestowed him the best of his swords, lands and castle in a lifetime possession.
Since then, many years have passed. King Higelak and his son fell in battle, and on the throne had to sit down Beowulf. He wisely and happily ruled his country, suddenly a new calamity. In his possession, a winged snake settled down, who at night killed people and burned at home. Once, one man persecuted by enemies, has buried a huge treasure. The dragon found a cave with treasures and guarded them for three hundred years. One day the unfortunate exile accidentally wandered into the cave, but from all the treasures he took only a small bowl to please his inexorable master. The serpent noticed that he was missing, but he did not find the kidnapper and began to take revenge on all people, devastating the possession of Beowulf. Having heard of this, Beowulf decides to deal with the dragon and protect his country. He is already an old man and feels that the death is close, but still goes to the serpent, commanding to forge a large shield for the defense of the dragon of the flame. The conductors were taken by the same ill-fated wanderer.
Upon approaching the cave, Beowulf and his wife see a huge flood of fire, which is impossible to cross. Then Beowulf begins to call the dragon loudly so that he climbs out. Hearing the human voices, the dragon creeps out, emitting jets of terrible heat. His view is so terrible that the soldiers escape, leaving their lord to the will of fate, and only a devotee Viglaf remains with the king, vainly trying to hold the cowards. Viglaf unlatches the sword and joins Beowulf, beating with the dragon. Beowulf's mighty hand, even in the old age, is too heavy for the sword, the sword of the dragon hits the pieces on the dragon's head. And while Beowulf tries to get a spare sword, the snake causes him a deadly wound. Assembled with forces, Beowulf again throws himself at the dragon and with the help of Viglaf hits him. With difficulty leaning against the rock, knowing that he was dying, Beowulf asks Viglaff to bring outside the treasure of the snake out to him so that he can admire them before his death. When Viglaf returns, Beowulf has already fallen into oblivion. With difficulty opening his eyes, he looks around the treasures.
The last commandment of Beowulf was this: to have buried him on the seashore and poured over him a large mound, visible from far away to sailors. Beowulf had his armor for Viglaff and died. Viglaf called the shrewd warriors, he read them. According to all the rules, they laid the body of Beowulf on the funeral fire, and then erected a magnificent mound on the seafront. And the sailors, sending their ships from the distance to this hill, say to each other: "Behold the grave of Beowulf visible above the surf. Honor and glory to him! "