Literature of antiquity and the Middle Ages - Summary 2019 year
Chretien de Troyes (approx. 1135 - approx. 1183)
Iwain, go Knight with a lion (Yvain ou Chevalier au lion) - Knight's novel in verse (between 1176-1181)
On the Trinity in the wards of the noble and kind King Arthur feasts the brilliant nobility. Knights have a nice conversation with the ladies. As everyone knows, in those blessed times, passionate tenderness and courtesy were valued above all else - nowadays the mores have become much rude, no one thinks about purity, the true feeling has defeated falsehood, the lovers dazzled the flaw.
One interesting story replaces another, and here comes the honest Kalogrenan: he wants to tell his friends what he hid until now. Seven years ago, the knight had to fall into the dense Broseliadre forest. Having missed the whole day, he saw a small cozy castle, where he was welcomed very warmly. The next day he came across more often on the whipped fangs shepherd, and he said that there is a spring in the forest, near which is a small chapel and a strange pine stands up. The bucket is suspended between the branches on the chain, and if it is poured out of it into a precious stone, a terrible storm will rise - whoever returns from there alive may find himself invincible. Kalogrenan immediately jumped to the source, found a pine with a dip and caused a storm, which now very much regrets. As soon as the sky cleared up, there was such a terrible rumbling, as if ten knights were rushing together. But there was only one - a gigantic face and a fierce morale. Kalogrenan suffered a devastating defeat and with difficulty dragged himself to the hospitable castle - courteous hosts pretended not to notice his shame.
The story of Kalogrenana makes everyone amazed. Messer Ivane swears to avenge the cousin's dishonor, but the malignant Seneschal Kei observes that it's easy to boom after a good lunch and plentiful libations. The queen interrupts the scammer, and the king announces his decision to go to a wonderful source and invites all the barons to accompany him. Caught up with the living, Iwain is hurrying ahead of other knights: that same evening, he secretly leaves the palace and rushes to search for the Broseliannd Forest. After long walks, Iwain finds a hospitable castle, then a herd-like shepherd and, finally, a source. Then everything happens in full accordance with the words of Kalogrenana: a terrible storm rises, then an angry giant comes up and throws himself at a stranger with imprisonment. In a desperate battle, Iwain defeats his adversary: the dying knight turns the horse, and Iwain rushes along. He breaks into an unfamiliar fortress, and then a secret door-collar hits him. The iron slides along Ivain's back, cutting off the horse in half: he remains unharmed, but gets trapped. It is saved by a beautiful girl, which Ivein once brought at the court of Arthur. Wishing to reward good for good, she puts on her finger a magic ring so that the vassals of the mortally wounded master of the castle can not be found.
The girl leads the knight into the room, orders to sit down on the bed and not move. Everywhere, squatters and pegs are racing: they found a broken horse instantly, but the rider seemed to evaporate. Frozen on the bed, Iwain, with enthusiasm, looks at the beautiful lady who entered the room. Make a coffin, and the lady begins to sob, crying to the deceased spouse. Blood appears on the forehead of the dead man - an obvious sign that the killer hides completely close. The Vassals are racing around the room, and the lady curses the invisible enemy, calling him a fake coward, a pitiful slave and a devilish rebirth. When the funeral ceremony is completed, the coffin is carried to the yard. A frightened girl runs away, which is very worried about Iwain. The knight inevitably looks out the window. Ivain fell victim to love - he flames with passion for his hatred. Beauty is always mortally wounded, and there is no shield from this sweet misfortune - it sharpens more sharply than any blade.
At first, the knight in love scolds himself for craziness, but then he decides to win a lovely lady piercing his heart. Reasonable girl, knowing about Iwan's passionate feelings, makes a conversation with his mist about him: there is no need to be distressed about the dead-perhaps the Lord will send her a better husband who will be able to protect the source. The lady's ankle breaks the napper, but curiosity turns out to be stronger, and she asks what kind of person a warrior who has overpowered her husband belongs to. The maiden, who brightens Ivina's bay, arranges everything in the best: a lovely Ladina agrees to marry a noble knight, the son of King Urien. The Vassals unanimously approve of her choice: a reliable defender needed her - the fame of Ivain rummates across the earth, and he proved his strength by defeating the powerful Esclados.
The next morning comes the message that the king is approaching the spring with his entire suite. The malicious Kay manages the missing Ivane and states that he will fight with the knight who humiliated the Kalogornana. In the short fight, Iwain, for the joy of the yard, bursts a ridiculist from the saddle, and then invites the king to his castle, to a beautiful wife. Happy and proud Lodina welcomes the monarch. Noting the intelligent maiden who saved Ivain, Gawain expresses a desire to become the knight of the dark-skinned Lunetta.
Seven days there is a feast, but every festival comes to an end, and now the king is already going to the return journey. Gawain is taken to bend a friend to a rational life: you need to be hardened in tournaments to be worthy of a beautiful wife. Ivein applies for permission to the spouse: Lodina has a firm heart forcing her husband, but orders to return exactly in a year. Ivane leaves her beautiful lady with longing.
The year passes imperceptibly; Gawain entertains a friend in every way, sledding battles and tournaments. Comes August: King Arthur calls the knights for a feast, and Iwain suddenly remembers his vow. There is no limit to his despair, and here is the messenger of the Lodina to the courtyard: loudly accusing the knight of treason, she tear off the ring from his finger and passes the order of the lady not to show her more on her eyes. Ivain loses reason from grief: he takes his clothes, rushes to the forest, where he gradually feels. Once a sleeping madman finds a noble lady. Mrs. de Nourisson decides to help the unfortunate: he rubs Morgan's Fairy from the head to foot and puts a wealth of clothing next to her. Awakened, healed Iwain hurriedly covers nakedness. Suddenly, a desperate long lance of lion, to which the fierce snake grabbed in the tail, came to him. Ivein shreds the dung for parts and the lion, with a sigh of relief, bends his knife in front of the knight, recognizing it as his master. The mighty beast becomes the true companion and armored warrior Ivana.
After two weeks of wanderings, the knight again finds itself at a wonderful source and loses feelings of grief; Lion, considering him dead, is trying to commit suicide. When he's done, Iwain sees Lünett in the chapel - the slanderant and sentenced to death at the stake. There is nobody to protect her, for Messier Ivane has disappeared, and Messer Gawain has gone to search for the queen stolen by ferocious enemies. A knight with a lion promises to step down for a maid - he will have a fight with three opponents together. In the eyes of the crowd gathered in anticipation of the execution of the crowd, Ivane defeats the villains. The Royal Lodin invites the wounded hero to the castle, but the knight says that he must wander until he pays a blame before a beautiful lady - without knowing her husband, Lodina complains of the cruelty of his beloved. Ivein finds a shelter in the castle of Mr. de Shaporosa - the father of two lovely daughters.
Soon throughout the country there is a message about the exploits of the mysterious Knight with a lion: he overcame the evil giant, saved from the death of Gawain's relatives and defended the possession of Mrs de Nourisson. Meanwhile, Mr. de Shaporoz dies, and the older sister denies the younger in the right to inherit. The cunning girl is in a hurry to get support, and she succeeds in inclining Gavain, who has already returned to the court. King Arthur, dissatisfied with such avidity, can not do anything - the invincible Gawain has no rivals. The younger sister now only hopes for a Knight with a lion and sends his girlfriend to his quest. The maiden finds the protector of the weak and oppressed: after learning about the abominations of the greedy heir, Iwane willingly agrees to help. On the way to the royal palace, the Knight with a lion accomplishes another feat: he frees three hundred virgins, captured by two demons, Satanilas, in the Rifle castle.
The younger sister in the meantime is already completely exhausted by sadness and despair. The day of judgment comes on: the older sister demands that the case be resolved in her favor, since she has a defender, and nobody wished to step down for the younger. Suddenly a stranger appears and, to the great joy of King Arthur, causes Gawain to fight. A fight begins - a terrible battle, in which they agreed, without knowing it, the best friends. They fight to death: Ivein wants to fight Gawain, Hawain wants to kill Iwain, but the forces of the opponents are equal - they can not win, but they do not want to give in. In vain, the king and the queen try to appeal to the conscience of their elder sister - a stubborn and greedy maiden does not want to listen. But with the onset of the night, the fight is still interrupted. Opponents enter into a conversation and finally recognize each other. Both are horrified: Ivein says, defeated by Gawain, Gawain pleaded to admit Ivina's winner. The king makes a sentence: the sisters must reconcile and fairly divide the inheritance. Suddenly a huge beast rushes out of the forest with a loud rumble, and it becomes clear to everyone who the Blacks have called the Knight with a lion.
The courtyard greeted with joy Ivain, but it still melts the dread - he can not live without a beautiful Pond, and no longer hopes for forgiveness. Ivein decides to return to the source and again cause a storm. Hearing the thunder of thunder, Loodia trembles with fear. The Vassals scoff at her - there was no life in the castle. Reasonable Lunetta reminds the lady about the Knight with a lion, and the lady swears to take him as a defender. The girl goes to the spring right away and finds Ivina there. The knight falls to the ground before his spouse. Having found the guilty husband, Lodina comes to a terrible anger: it is better to tolerate the daily storms than to love the one who boldly neglected her. Excited for admiration, Iwain says that he is ready to die in separation, if the heart of his beloved is so adamant. Lodina objects to this, that the oath has already been brought: I must forgive Ivain not to ruin the soul. A happy knight enters his wife in a hug. His wanderings are over - love has triumphed.