Literature of antiquity and the Middle Ages - Summary 2019 year

Aristophanes (approx. 445-386 BC e)

Clouds (Nephelai) - Comedy (423 BC)

In Athens, the most famous philosopher was Socrates. He then paid his life for his philosophy: he was attracted to the court and executed for precisely because he questioned too much, decomposed (as if) the morals and weakened the state. But before that, it was still far away: at first it was only brought out in the comedy. At the same time, he attributed to him something that he never spoke and did not think and against which he himself argued: that's the comedy.
The comedy was called "Cloud", and its chorus consisted of Clouds - waving blankets and for some reason long nose. Why "Clouds"? Because the philosophers first began to think about what all the various diverse objects around us consist of. Maybe from water, which happens both liquid and solid, and gaseous? or from a fire that moves and changes all the time? or from some kind of "uncertainty"? Then why not from the clouds, which change shape every minute? Therefore, Cloud is the new gods of the new philosophers. Socrates had no relationship: he was just a little interested in the origin of the universe, and more about human actions, good and bad. But the comedies were all the same.
Human actions are also dangerous. Fathers and grandfathers did not ponder and did not reason, and the young woman knew firmly what was good and what was bad. New philosophers began to reason, and it seemed to them that logic can prove that good is not so good, but bad is not bad at all. That's what troubled the Athenian citizens; Here's how Aristophanes wrote the "Clouds" comedy.
Lives in Athens a strong man named Strepsiad, and he has a son, a young zagliel: strives for a noble, is interested in jumps and ruining his father's debts. Father and sleep unbearable: the thoughts of lenders gnaw him like fleas. But it came to him that some new sages, who know how to make a lie by the truth, are truthful in Athens, and the truth is untrue. If you learn from them, then, maybe, will be able to go to court against creditors? And in the years of old Strepsiad goes to study.
Here is the house of Socrates, there is a sign on it: "Thought". The apprentice of Socrates explains what the subjects are doing here. For example, a student spoke with Socrates, plucked his flea, and then he jumped over and banged Socrates. How far has she jumped? This is how to count: human jumps we measure human steps, and flea jumps must be measured by flea. I had to take a flea, print her legs on the wax, measure her stroke, and then, with these steps, measure the jump. Or else: the mosquito bites a larynx or an ass? His body is tubular, he flies fast, air flies in his mouth, and flies through the back, so it turns out that the ass. And what is that? Geographic map: look, this circle is Athens. "I will not believe in anything: in Athens, not a step, it's disputants and crooks, but in this circle no one is visible."
Here is Socrates himself: hanging in the hammock above the roof itself. Why? To understand the universe, you need to be closer to the stars. "Socrates, Socrates, I adjure you gods: teach me such things that you can not pay your debts!" - "What gods? We have new gods - Clouds. " - "And Zeus?" - "Why Zeus?" There is also a thunder in them, and lightning is in them, and instead of Zeus they are driven by the vortex. " - "How is it a thunder?" - "And here's how bad air in your stomach is bursting, and in the clouds it's boiling, it's thunder". - "And who punishes sinners?" - "Is Zeus punishing them? If he had punished them, they would not have gotten enough to such, such, and such, but they go to live alive! "-" How to be with them? "-" What language is it? " Learn to argue - and you will be punished by them. Whirlwind, Cloud, and Language are our sacred Trinity!" Meanwhile, the choir of the Clouds flock to the stage, praises the Sky, praises Athens and, as usual, recommends the poet Aristophanes to the public.
So how to get rid of the creditors? "It's simpler than simple: they are in court, and you swear by Zeus that they did not take anything from them; Zeus has not been there for a long time, and you will not be charged with a false oath. " So what, and indeed with the truth can not be considered again? "But look now". The main argument begins, the big baskets are brought to the scene; Truth and Kryvda sit in them like battle cocks. Creep out and fly to each other, and the choir podsuyetsya. "Where in the world did you see the truth?" - "the supreme gods!" - "Is this the place where Zeus overthrew his own father and chained it in the chain?" - "And our ancestors who lived in a righteous manner, humble, obediently, respected the old men, defeated the enemies and conducted scholarly conversations. " - "There was little that was from the ancestors, and now, with humility, you will not achieve anything, be at once - and you will win!" Other in people - by nature, otherwise - by conspiracy; that by nature - that is higher! Drink, walk, fornication follow nature! And they will catch you with a strange wife - say: I am like Zeus, I sleep with everyone who likes it! "Word for word, opelouha for the opelouh, look - Corrupted and really stronger than Truth.
Strepsiad with his son Radehonka. The lender arrives: "Pay a debt!" Strepsiad swears to him: "Sees Zeus, I do not take money from you!" - "Zhev will blow you up!" - "Defending the window!" The second lender comes. "Pay interest!" - "And what are the interest?" - "The debt lies and grows with each passing month: here's a pay-per-increment!" - "Tell me, the rivers flowing and flowing into the sea; and it grows bigger? "-" No, where to grow it! "-" Then, from what stand and money to grow? No money from me! "The lenders run away with curses, Strepsiade triumphs, but the Clouds chorus warns:" Be careful, it's fine! "
The payoff comes from an unexpected side, Strepsiad baptized with his son: they did not agree on the views of Euripides' verses. A son, thinking briefly, grabs a stick and batters his father. Father in horror: "There is no such law - to crush the fathers!" And the son says: "Let us take it and let it go!" It's impossible to beat the fathers by conspiracy, but by nature - why not? "Here only the old man understands what misfortune has fallen into. He calls to the Clouds: "Where have you taken me?" Clouds say: "Remember the word of Aeschylus: learn in suffering!" Learned with bitter experience, Strepsiade grabs a torch and runs to crush Socrates - set fire to his "thinker." Cry, fire, smoke, and comedy are the end.