Literature of antiquity and the Middle Ages - Summary 2019 year

Shota Rustaveli (1162 or 1166 - about 1230)

The Knight in the Tiger's Skin - Poem (1205-1207)

Once in Arabia governed by the glorious Tsar Rostevan, and he had his only daughter, the beautiful Tinatin. Anticipating a close-up, Rostevne ordered during his life to raise his daughter to the throne, about which he informed the viziers. Those who favored the decision of the wise lord, because "Though the king will be a maiden - and she created the creator. <...> The iceberg remains a lioness, be it a female or male." On the day of the ascension of Tinatin to the throne, Rostevan and his faithful spaspec (warlord) and the pupil Avtandil, long passionately in love with Tinatin, agreed to arrange hunting and contest in the art of shooting from the bow the next day.
Having traveled to a competition (in which, for pleasure Rostelevan, his pupil turned out to be victorious), the king noticed in the distance a lone figure of the rider wearing a tiger's skin, and sent a chase after him. But the envoy returned to Rostelevan with nothing, the knight did not respond to the call of the glorious king. An angry Rostevan tells the twelve warriors to take the stranger into captivity, but, having seen the detachment, the knight, as if awake, flung tears from his eyes and shook the intending men to capture his warriors with a whip. The same detachment, sent to chase, also suffered the same. Then Rosestan himself hopped on the mysterious stranger with the faithful Avtandil, but, noticing the approach of the emperor, the stranger fluttered his horse and "disappeared into the space" as suddenly as it was.
Rostevan retired in his quarters without wanting to see anyone except his beloved daughter. Tinatin advises his father to send reliable people to look for the knight in the world and find out "whether he is a man or a devil". The racers traveled to the four ends of the world, half the earths came, but they did not meet the one who knew the sufferer.
Avtandil invites him to his chambers for pleasure, and in the name of his love for her three years to search for a mysterious stranger across the land, and if he fulfills her command, she will become his wife. Going to the search for the knight in the tiger's skin, Avtandil in the letter honestly farewell to Rostevan and leaves instead to protect himself from the enemies of the kingdom of his friend and the approximate Shermadin.
And then, "All of Arabia has traveled for four transitions," "Wandering on the face of the earth, homeless and poor, / He visited in every three years every small corner." Without failing to attack the trail of the mysterious knight, "he was afraid of heartfelt torment," Avtandil decided to turn his horse back, as he suddenly saw six weary and wounded travelers, who told him that they had met on a hunt by a grave sunk in Thought and dressed in tiger skin. You, that he gave them a worthy resistance and "proudly rushed like a light from the light."
Two days and two nights were pursued by the Avtandil Knight, until finally he moved the mountain stream, and Avtandil, climbing a tree and hiding in his crown, did not witness the appearance of a girl who came to meet the forest of a wild boar (called her Asmat ), and, hugging themselves, they sobbing for a long time over the brook, grieving about the fact that they still could not find any beautiful girl. The next morning, this scene was repeated, and, having propagated with Asmat, the knight continued his sorrowful path.
Avtandil, speaking with Asmat, is trying to find out from her the secret of such a strange behavior of the knight. She does not decide long ago to share Avtandil with her sorrow, finally tells that the mysterious knight is Tariel, that she is his slave. At this time a knock of hooves is heard - it comes back to Tareel. Avtandil is hiding in the peninsula, and Asmat tells Tariel about the unexpected visitor, and Tariel and Avtandil, two Maidenura (that is, lovers, those who dedicated their lives to serving the beloved), gladly greet each other and become brothers. Avtandil first tells his story of love for Tinatin, the beautiful possessor of the Arabian throne, and that it was by his will that he wandered three years in the wilderness in search of Tariel. In response, Tariel tells him his story.
... There were once seven Indians in the kingdom, six of whom became their lord Farsadan, the generous and wise ruler. Father Tariel, the glorious Saridan, "the thunder of enemies," he managed his part, the supostats of extortions. " But, having achieved honors and fame, he began to languish in solitude, and also gave his possessions to Farsadan by good will. But the noble Farsadan abandoned the generous gift and left Saridan the sole ruler of his possession, brought him closer to him and regarded him as a brother. At the royal court, he was brought up in the darkness and worship of himself and Tariel. In the meantime, the beautiful daughter - Nestan-Darjehan - was married to the royal couple. When Tarielu was about fifteen years old, Saridan passed away, and Farsadan and the queen handed him "his father's dignity, the commander of the whole country."
The beauty of Nestan-Darejan, meanwhile, grew and captivated by the burning passion of the heart of the brave Tariel. Once upon a time in the midst of a feast, Nestan-Darjehan sent to his sister, Asmat, a slave to Tariel with a message that read: "Painful faint and weakness - do you call them love? / Is not the Maidenura more glorious, bought with blood? "Nestan suggested to Tareel to declare war on hataves (it is necessary to note that the action in the poem takes place both in real and in the fictitious countries), to earn merit in the" collision with the blood-th "honor and glory - and then she will give Tariel his hand and heart.
Tariel acts on a hatavan campaign and returns to Farzadan with victory, breaking the hordes of Khatva's Khan Ramaz. The next morning, after turning to the tormented love flour, the royal couple comes to the advice of the hero, whom the feelings experienced by the young men towards their daughter were unknown: who should give the wife a single daughter and a follower of the throne? It turned out that the Shah 'Khorezm reads to his husband, the Ne-state-Darejan of his son, and Farsadan and the queen kindly perceive his marriage. Asmat is behind Tariel, in order to convey him to the chambers of Nestan-Darejan. But she blames Tariel for lying, saying that she was deceived by calling herself a lover, because she is against her will "for the prince of a stranger", but he only agrees with the decision of her father. But Tareel convinces Nestan Darred Jan that he is convinced that he is destined to become her husband and governor of Hindustan.
Having executed the order of the beloved, the hero addresses to Farzadan: "Your throne is now behind me according to the statute," the farsadan has been angry; he is sure that this is his sister, sorcerer Dawar, who has thought of those who are in love for such a treacherous act, and threatens to crush it . Dawahan is led to the prince with great abuses, and at that time in the quarters there are "two slave, according to the species" (fairy-tale characters of Georgian folklore), pushing Nestan into the ark and carrying them to the sea. Dawar in the mountain punches himself with a sword. On the same day, Tariel, with fifty in-laws, goes to search for a lover. But in vain - nowhere could he find even the traces of a beautiful princess.
Once upon a time, Tariel met with the brave Nuradin-Friddon, the sovereign of Mulgazanzar, who fought against his uncle, who sought to split the country, in their wanderings. Knights, "having made a cordial union", give one another vows of eternal friendship. Tareel helps Frithon to defeat the enemy and restore peace and tranquility in his kingdom. In one of the conversations, Frydon told Tariello that one day, walking on the seafront, he had to see a strange boat from which, when she drove to the shore, a virgin of incomparable beauty arose. Tariel, of course, recognized her beloved in her, told Frei Don his sad story, and Fridon immediately sent sailors "to various distant countries" with an order to find a captive. But "inexperienced sailors came to the edge of the earth, / These people did not find any traces of ts-jealous".
Tareel, having forgave with his sister and having received a gift from a horse in the form of a gift, went back to search again, but desperate to find a beloved, he found a shelter in a secluded cave, which had met him, clad in a tiger's skin, Avtandil (" the tiger is similar to my virgin, / Because I'm the tiger's skin of clothes only miles").
Avtandil decides to return to Tinatin, tell her about everything, and then rejoin Tariel and help him find.
... With great joy met Avtandil at the court of the wise Rostevan, and Tinatin, "like a heavenly aloe over the valley of the Euphrates <...> waited on the throne, painted richly." Although Avtandil had a difficult new separation from his beloved, though Rostevan resisted his departure, the word given to a friend drove him away from his family, and Avtandil, for the second time, secretly, left Araibia, commanding him to humbly execute him the responsibilities of the military commander. As he leaves, Avtandil leaves Roshtuan a will, a peculiar hymn of love and friendship.
Arriving to the abandoned cave in which Tairiel was hiding, Avtandil finds there only Asmat - unable to withstand the torment of his soul, Tariel one went to search for Nestan-Darejan.
In the second time, having overtaken his friend, Avtandil finds him in extreme despair, with difficulty he managed to bring him back to life of the wounded in a fight with the lion and tigress Tariel. Friends return to the cave, and Avtandil decides to go to Mulgazanzar to Friddon to ask him in more detail, under what circumstances he had to see Sunshine Nestan.
On the seventieth day Avtandil arrived in the possession of Friddon. "Under the guards of two sentinals, the girl appeared to us," Friedon, who met him with honors, told him. - Both were like soot, only the maiden - light-headed. / I took a sword, horse sprinkled, so that with the guards to fight, / But the unknown boat hid in the sea, like a bird."
Against the path of the glorious Avtandil, "many of the counterparts for a hundred days he questioned the bazaars, / But did not hear about the girl, only spent time for nothing", until he met the caravan of merchants from Baghdad, whose leader was the venerable elder Usam. Avtan-dil helped Osama to defeat the sea robbers who plundered their kara-van, Usam offered him gratitude to all his goods, but Avtandil asked only a simple dress and an opportunity to escape from other's eyes, "pretending to be the elder" of a merchant caravan.
Thus, under the guise of a simple merchant, Avtandil arrived in the marvelous Gulansharo town, in which "the flowers are fragrant and never fade." Avtandil laid out his goods under the trees, and the gardener of the famous merchant Usena approached him and told him that his master was in his departure today, but "here is Fatma Hatun at the house, Mrs. His wife," she is cheerful, loves the guest in an hour leisure ". Having learned that an eminent merchant arrived in their city, besides, "like a seven-day month, he is more beautiful than a board," Fatma immediately ordered the merchant to be brought to the palace. "In the summer, young, but beautiful," Fatma fell in love with Avtandil. "The flame was strong, increased, / The mystery was discovered, as the hostess did not hide," and here, during one of the days, when Avtandil and Fatma "kissed for a mutual interaction," an altar door opened and a terrible warrior appeared on the threshold, who had driven Fatma for her plundering a great punishment. "You all like your wolf!" He threw him in his face and left. Fatma burst into frustration with tears, bitterly depicting herself, and begged Avtandil to kill Chaccaggir (the so-called warrior) and to remove from him a ring with her finger with her finger. Avtandil executed Fatma's request, but he told him about his meeting with Nestandarajan.
One day, at the feast of the queen, Fatma entered the gazebo, which was erected on a rock, and, opening the window and looking at the sea, he saw how the rooftop was joined to the shore, followed by a couple of black creatures, a girl whose beauty was eclipsed by the sun. Fatma behaved to slaves to buy from the guard the girl, and "if the bargain does not take place", kill them. So it happened. Fatma hid "a sunshine Ne-state in secret rooms, but the girl continued to pour tears day and night, and did not say anything about herself. At last, Fatma decided to reveal to her husband, who with great joy received a stranger, but Nestan remained silent and "her mouth, like roses, squeezed over the pearls." One day, Usen went to a feast to the king, who was a "friend of a friend," and, wishing to reward him for his favor, he married a sister-in-law a "girl similar to a chinar." Fatma immediately seated Nastan on a fast-horse and sent away. The sadness in the heart of Fatmah settled in the beauty of the stranger. One day, passing by a pub, Fatma heard the story of the servant of the great king, the ruler of Gadget (the country of evil spirits - Cajami), that after the death of his master to rule the country, the sister of the king Dularduhut became the "great man as a rock" and in her care she left two princes. This servant turned out to be a detachment of soldiers who were industrial robbery. At one of the nights, wandering through the steppe, they saw a rider whose face "shone in the fog, as if it was a flash". Confessing a girl in it, the soldiers immediately captivated her - "the girl did not listen to the petitions, nor to the conspiracy ..." Only the summers seemed silent to the robber patrol, / And she, as an aspid, was pouring in an angry gaze ". The sadness in the heart of Fatmah settled in the beauty of the stranger. One day, passing by a pub, Fatma heard the story of the servant of the great king, the ruler of Gadget (the country of evil spirits - Cajami), that after the death of his master to rule the country, the sister of the king Dularduhut became the "great man as a rock" and in her care she left two princes. This servant turned out to be a detachment of soldiers who were industrial robbery. At one of the nights, wandering through the steppe, they saw a rider whose face "shone in the fog, as if it was a flash". Confessing a girl in it, the soldiers immediately captivated her - "the girl did not listen to the petitions, nor to the conspiracy ..." Only the summers seemed silent to the robber patrol, / And she, as an aspid, was pouring in an angry gaze ". The sadness in the heart of Fatmah settled in the beauty of the stranger. One day, passing by a pub, Fatma heard the story of the servant of the great king, the ruler of Gadget (the country of evil spirits - Cajami), that after the death of his master to rule the country, the sister of the king Dularduhut became the "great man as a rock" and in her care she left two princes. This servant turned out to be a detachment of soldiers who were industrial robbery. At one of the nights, wandering through the steppe, they saw a rider whose face "shone in the fog, as if it was a flash". Confessing a girl in it, the soldiers immediately captivated her - "the girl did not listen to the petitions, nor to the conspiracy ..." Only the summers seemed silent to the robber patrol, / And she, as an aspid, was pouring in an angry gaze". Fatma heard the story of the slave of the great king, the ruler of Gadget (the country of evil spirits - Cajami), that after the death of his master to rule the country, the sister of the king Dulardukhut became a "great man as a rock" and in her care two princes remained. This servant turned out to be a detachment of soldiers who were industrial robbery. At one of the nights, wandering through the steppe, they saw a rider whose face "shone in the fog, as if it was a flash". Confessing a girl in it, the soldiers immediately captivated her - "the girl did not listen to the petitions, nor to the conspiracy ..." Only the summers seemed silent to the robber patrol, / And she, as an aspid, was pouring in an angry gaze ". Fatma heard the story of the slave of the great king, the ruler of Gadget (the country of evil spirits - Cajami), that after the death of his master to rule the country, the sister of the king Dulardukhut became a "great man as a rock" and in her care two princes remained. This servant turned out to be a detachment of soldiers who were industrial robbery. At one of the nights, wandering through the steppe, they saw a rider whose face "shone in the fog, as if it was a flash". Confessing a girl in it, the soldiers immediately captivated her - "the girl did not listen to the petitions, nor to the conspiracy ..." Only the summers seemed silent to the robber patrol, / And she, as an aspid, was pouring in an angry gaze ". as a rock "and in her care, she left two princes. This servant turned out to be a detachment of soldiers who were industrial robbery. At one of the nights, wandering through the steppe, they saw a rider whose face "shone in the fog, as if it was a flash". Confessing a girl in it, the soldiers immediately captivated her - "the girl did not listen to the petitions, nor to the conspiracy ..." Only the summers seemed silent to the robber patrol, / And she, as an aspid, was pouring in an angry gaze ". as a rock "and in her care, she left two princes. This servant turned out to be a detachment of soldiers who were industrial robbery. At one of the nights, wandering through the steppe, they saw a rider whose face "shone in the fog, as if it was a flash". Confessing a girl in it, the soldiers immediately captivated her - "the girl did not listen to the petitions, nor to the conspiracy ..." Only the summers seemed silent to the robber patrol, / And she, as an aspid, was pouring in an angry gaze ".
On the same day, Fatma sent two slaves to Kadheti with an order to find Nestan-Darejan. At three days the slaves came back to the news that Nestan was already engaged with Tsarevich Kadzeti, that Dularduhht was co-traveling to go to sea for the funeral of her sister and that she took wizards and sorcerers with her, "for her path is dangerous, and the enemies are ready for battle" . But the fortress of the Cadge is inaccessible, it is located on a vertex-not steep cliff, and "ten thousand best guards guard the fortification."
Thus opened to Avtandilu the place of Nestan. That night, Fatma "enjoyed a full bite on the bed, / Although, in truth, they were reluctant to have Avtandil's caresses", which was tumulious with Tinatin. In the morning, Avtandil told Fatma the story of "how the tiger worn in abundance suffering from abundance", and asked to send one of his sorcerers to Nestan-Darejan. Soon, the sorcerer returned with an order from Nestan not to let Tariel go on a trip to Gadget, because she "will die with double death, when he dies on the day of the battle."
Calling Fredon's slaves to him and giving them generously, Avtandil ordered them to go to their master and ask them to assemble the army and make a speech at Gadgets; he himself crossed the sea on a nearby galler and hurried with a good message to Tariel. There was no limit to the happiness of the knight and his faithful Asmat.
The three friends "moved to the land of Frida on the steppe deaf" and eventually arrived safely at the court of the ruler of Mulgazanzar. Posy-broadcasting, Tariel, Avtandil, and Frydon decided immediately, before the return of Dulardukht, to go on a hike to the fortress that "the chain of rocks is impassable of enemies is fenced." The squads in a crowd of three hundred people day and night were rushing in "without letting their wife sleep."
"The battlefields of the brothers are divided among themselves. / Each warrior in their detachment is likened to a hero. " Overnight, defenseless castles were defeated. Tariel, sweeping everything in his own way, rushed to his beloved, and "this pair of light-headed dogs could not disassociate. / Rose of the lips, falling to each other, could not separate."
Having put on three thousand mules and camels a rich prey, Vy-Targisi, along with the beautiful princess, went to Fatma to thank her. Everyone got into the casemade battle they presented to the ruler Gulansharo, who with great honors met the guests and also gave them rich gifts. Then the heroes were sent to the kingdom of Fridon, "and then a great feast was set in Mulgazanzar. <...> Eight days playing the wedding, the whole country was having fun. <...> There were drums and cymbals, harps sang until dark. " At the feast, Tareel volunteered to go with Avtandil to Arabia and be his swat: "Where are the words, where we will arrange with our swords all the work there. / I did not marry you in the house, I do not want to be married! "" Neither the sword nor the eloquent can not be in the land / Where God sent me a sunshine my tsarina! "Answered Avtandil and reminded Tariel that, that it's time to seize him on the Indian throne, and on the day when "when these <...> things begin to materialize" he will return to Arabia. But Tariel is not obstinate in the decision to help the Friend. He is joined by the valiant Fridon, and now "the lions, having left the lands of Friddon, were in joy and unprecedented," and on one day they reached the Arabian side.
Tareel sent to Rosestvan a chase with a message, and Rostevan with a multidimensional retinue drove to meet the glorious heroes and the beautiful Nestan-Darejan.
Tariel asks Rostelevan to be merciful to Avtandil, who once went without his blessing to search for the knight in the tiger's skin. Rostevan joyfully forgives his warlord, giving him his wife a daughter, and with her an Arabian throne. "Pointing to Avtandil, the king told his wife:" Here is a king for you. " By the will of God, he reigns in my stronghold. " There should be the wedding Avtandil and Tinatin.
Meanwhile, a caravan appears in the horizon in black mourning robes. Asking the righteous, the heroes will learn that the king of Indus Farsadan, "deprived of a lovely daughter", did not suffer grief and died, but to the In-do came the Khatavy, "encircled the army of the wild", and the leadership of them Haya Ramaz, "that with the king of Egypt does not enter into a rebellion."
"Tariel, hearing this, did not stop any more, / And he walked the three-day road for a day." Immersions, of course, went along with him and overnight overcame the immense Khatav army. The queen's mother joined hands of Tariel and Nestan-Darejan, and "on a high royal throne Tariel sat with his wife." "Seven Thrones of Hindustan, all paternal possessions / they got spouses there, thawing their stroll-nya. / At last they, the sufferers, forgot about the torture: / Only who will appreciate the joy who knows the grief."
Thus began to rule in their countries three valiant knight-godmother: Tariel in Hindustan, Avtandil in Arabia, and Frydon in Mulgazanzar, and "their merciful affairs ran like snow everywhere."