Literature of antiquity and the Middle Ages - Summary 2019 year

Ludovico Ariosto (1474-1533)

Furious Roland (Orlando furioso) - Poem (1516-1532)

This unusual poem is a poem-continuation. It starts almost half way, picking up a stranger's plot. The beginning of it was written by the poet Matteo Boyard - not many, sixty-nine songs under the title "Love Roland". Ariosto added forty-seven of them to her, but at the end he was thinking of continuing to continue. Heroes do not count on it, everyone has their own adventures, storylines are woven into a real web, and Ariosto with particular pleasure breaks every narration at the most tense moment to say: and now let's see what makes such ... The protagonist of the poem, Roland, a sign to the European reader already four hundred and five hundred years. During this time, the legends about him have changed a lot.
First, the background has become different. In the "Song of Roland," the event was a small war in the Pyrenees between Charlemagne and his Spanish neighbor - Boyard and Ariosto are an all-out war between the Christian and Muslim worlds, where the Emperor of Africa, Agramant, is at Charlemagne, with kings and Spanish, and Tartar, Circassian, and uncountable others, and in their millionth army, there are two heroes, which no one saw the light: the great and wild Rodomonte and the noble knight Ruedger, which will be discussed. By the time Ariost's poem begins, basurmans overcome, and their hordes are already at the very heart of Paris.
Secondly, the other became a hero. In "The Song of Roland," he is a knight as a knight, only the strongest, honest and valiant. Boyard and Ariosto, in addition to this, on the one hand, a giant of unheard-of strength, capable of breaking the bull by bare hands in half, and on the other hand, a passionate love, capable of love to lose reason in the literal sense of the word - that's why the poem is called "Furious Roland ", The subject of his love is Angelica, a princess from Kataia (China), a beautiful and frivolous, who has shifted his head to all chivalry in white light; Boyard flooded her war across Asia, she had just escaped from the captivity of Charles the Great, and Roland had already escaped from this in such a despair that he threw the sovereign and friends in the besieged Paris and went around the world to seek Angelica.
Thirdly, others became the companions of the hero. The main ones are two of his cousins: Astolph, the good and frivolous adventurer, and the noble Rinalde, the true paladin of Charles, the embodiment of all the knights' valor. Rinald is also in love with Angelica too, but his love is ill-fated. There are two magical sources in the Ardennes Forest in the north of France - the key to Love and the Key of Love; who will hit the first, will feel love, who from the second - a disgust. Both Rinald and Angelica had been drunk from that and from the other, but not at all: Angelica first pursued Rinald's love, and he ran away from her, then Rinald began chasing Angelica, and she escaped from him. But to Charles the Great he is right, and Charles from Paris sends him for help to neighboring England.
This Rinaldi has a sister Bradamanta - also a beautiful woman, also a warrior, and such that when she is in pawns, then nobody will think that it is a woman, and not a man. Of course, she is in love, and this love in the poem is the main one. She is in love with the supporter, in the same Rujier, who is the best of the Saracen knights. Their marriage is predetermined by fate, because of the descendants of Rujier and Bradamantas, a noble family of princes of Este who will rule in Ferrara, in the homeland of Ariosto, and whom he will devote to his poem, will go. Rujier and Bradamanta met once in battle, were long shattered, shaking the strength and courage of each other, and when they got tired, they stopped and took off helmets, then they fell in love with each other at first sight. But there are a lot of obstacles on the way to joining them.
Rugger is a son from the secret marriage of a Christian knight with a Saracen princess. He is brought up in Africa by the wizard and the Atlantean Warlock. Atlanta knows that his pet will receive a baptism, will bring forth glorious descendants, but then he will perish, and therefore he strives not to let his beloved go to Christians. He has a castle full of ghosts in the mountains: when the knight comes to the castle, Atlanta shows him the ghost of his beloved, he throws himself at the gate to meet her and for a long time remains captive, vainly searching for his lady in empty gentry and passageways. But Bradamant has a magic ring, and these spells do not work on her. Then Atlant places Ruggiera on his winged horse - the hippogriff, and he takes him to another edge of the world, to another wizard-warlock - Alcine. But he meets him in the form of a young beauty, and Rudjierra falls into a temptation: for months he lives on her miraculous island in luxury and light, enjoying her love, and only the intervention of a wise fairy burying about the future of the family of Este returns him to the path of virtue. Envy breaks down, the beauty of Alcine appears in the true form of blemish, disgusting and ugly, and the repentant Rugger on the same hippogriff flies back to the west. It's vain, here again loving Atlanta curses him and draws him into his ghostly castle. And the captured Rudger is hurrying at his halls in search of Bradamantas, and next to the captive Bradmanta, he is hurrying along the same halls in search of Rugger, but they do not see each other. and the repentant Rougier on the same hippogriff flies back to the west. It's vain, here again loving Atlanta curses him and draws him into his ghostly castle. And the captured Rudger is hurrying at his halls in search of Bradamantas, and next to the captive Bradmanta, he is hurrying along the same halls in search of Rugger, but they do not see each other. and the repentant Rougier on the same hippogriff flies back to the west. It's vain, here again loving Atlanta curses him and draws him into his ghostly castle. And the captured Rudger is hurrying at his halls in search of Bradamantas, and next to the captive Bradmanta, he is hurrying along the same halls in search of Rugger, but they do not see each other.
While Bradmanta and Atlanta are struggling for Rugger's fate; while Rinald fails for help in England and from England, and on the road saves the lady Ginevre, falsely accused of disgrace; while Roland is raving in search of Angelica, and on the way rescues Lady Isabella captured by the bandits and the lady Olimpia thrown by a cowardly lover on an uninhabited island, and then sacrificed on a rock to a sea monster - in the meantime, King Agramant and his hordes surround Paris and prepare to the offensive, and the pious emperor Charles calls for help to the Lord. And the Lord orders the archangel Michael: "Come down, find Silence, and find Raspray: let Silence give Rinald with the British suddenly fall from the rear to the Saracens, and let Raspry attack the Saracens' state and sow dissension and confusion there, and the enemies of the right faith will be extinguished!" Flies archistratig, looking for, but not there finds them, where he was looking for: Raspryu with Lenyu, Delicacy and Envy - among the monks in the monasteries, and Silence - between the robbers, traitors and secret assassins. But the attack was raging, clinging around all around the walls, blowing the flames, breaking into the city of Rodomonte, and one crashing all of them, cutting from the gate to the gate, pouring blood, flying in the air arms, shoulders, and heads. But Silence leads to Rinald's Paris with help - and the attack is repelled, and only Saracens save the night from defeat. And Rospar, Rodomonte's little break through from the city to his own, whispers to him a rumor that his courteous lady Doralis changed to him with the second-best Saracenshire warrior Mandricard - and Rodomonte suddenly throws himself out and rushes to look for the offender, the deceased woman's lineage, vile, insidious and treacherous. But the attack was raging, clinging around all around the walls, blowing the flames, breaking into the city of Rodomonte, and one crashing all of them, cutting from the gate to the gate, pouring blood, flying in the air arms, shoulders, and heads. But Silence leads to Rinald's Paris with help - and the attack is repelled, and only Saracens save the night from defeat. And Rospar, Rodomonte's little break through from the city to his own, whispers to him a rumor that his courteous lady Doralis changed to him with the second-best Saracenshire warrior Mandricard - and Rodomonte suddenly throws himself out and rushes to look for the offender, the deceased woman's lineage, vile, insidious and treacherous. But the attack was raging, clinging around all around the walls, blowing the flames, breaking into the city of Rodomonte, and one crashing all of them, cutting from the gate to the gate, pouring blood, flying in the air arms, shoulders, and heads. But Silence leads to Rinald's Paris with help - and the attack is repelled, and only Saracens save the night from defeat. And Rospar, Rodomonte's little break through from the city to his own, whispers to him a rumor that his courteous lady Doralis changed to him with the second-best Saracenshire warrior Mandricard - and Rodomonte suddenly throws himself out and rushes to look for the offender, the deceased woman's lineage, vile, insidious and treacherous. and only the night saves Saracen from defeat. And Rospar, Rodomonte's little break through from the city to his own, whispers to him a rumor that his courteous lady Doralis changed to him with the second-best Saracenshire warrior Mandricard - and Rodomonte suddenly throws himself out and rushes to look for the offender, the deceased woman's lineage, vile, insidious and treacherous. and only the night saves Saracen from defeat. And Rospar, Rodomonte's little break through from the city to his own, whispers to him a rumor that his courteous lady Doralis changed to him with the second-best Saracenshire warrior Mandricard - and Rodomonte suddenly throws himself out and rushes to look for the offender, the deceased woman's lineage, vile, insidious and treacherous.
There was a young warrior named Sarah in Saratsk. His king fell in battle; and when the night fell on the battlefield, Mador went out with his comrade so that under his moon he could find his body among corpses and buried with honor. They were noticed, they rushed in pursuit, Medeur was wounded, his companion was killed, and Medora would have fled with blood in the thicket of the forest, not an unexpected savior. This is the one with which the war began, Angelica, through the secret paths that made his way to his distant Katay. There was a miracle: a vain, light-minded, deceived kings and best knights, she regretted Medora, fell in love with him, carried him to a rural hut, and until his wound was healed, they lived there, loving each other as a shepherd with a shepherdess. And Medeur, not believing in his fortune, carved a knife on the bark of the trees with their names and words of gratitude to heaven for their love. When the Medor is strengthened, they continue their way to Katai disappearing behind the horizon of the poem, and the inscriptions carved on the trees remain. They became fatal: we are in the middle of the poem - Roland's rage begins.
Roland, in search of Angelica traversing half of Europe, falls into this very grove, reads these same writings in the trees and sees that Angelica loved another. At first he does not believe in his eyes, then his thoughts, then he dreams, then cries, then grabs the sword, cut trees with letters, cut down the rocks on the sides - "and it was the very fury that was not issued, and did not give way to the terrible." He throws off the weapon, tears down the armor, tore a dress on himself; naked, shaggy, he runs through the woods, barking out the oaks with his bare hands, eating the hunger with a raw bear, tearing his opponents behind his feet in half, crushing entire shelves alone. Yes - in France, yes - in Spain, yes - through the strait, yes - in Africa; and a terrible rumor about his fate flies already to the Karpovaya yard. And it was not easy for Carl, even Rasprya, to sow disgrace in the Saracensky camp, though Rodomonte and rebelled with Mandrikard, and with the other, and with the third hero, but the bassourian army is still under Paris, and in the non-Christian world, new invincible warriors. First, it's up to nowhere to know where Rudger is, even though he loves Bradmant, but his lord is African Agramant, and he must serve his vassal service. Secondly, it is the wealthy Marfisa, the thunder of the whole East, who never takes off the armor and has sworn the three strongest kings in the world. Without Roland Christians can not handle them; How to find him, how to give him reason? never removing the armor and giving an oath to beat the three most powerful kings in the world. Without Roland Christians can not handle them; How to find him, how to give him reason? never removing the armor and giving an oath to beat the three most powerful kings in the world. Without Roland Christians can not handle them; How to find him, how to give him reason?
Here is what Astolph is a fun adventurer who does not care. He is lucky: he has a magic spear, the most stumbling from the saddle; he has a magic horn, turning into a panic escape of every visitor; He even has a thick book with an index pointer, how to deal with what forces and spells. Once he was brought to the edge of the world to the temptation of Alcine, and then Rugger released him. From there, he rushed to his homeland across Asia. On the way, he defeated the miraculous giant, whom he cut, he will again grow up: Astolph cut off his head and jumped away, plucking hair behind her hair, and the headless body fled, waving his fists, followed; when he pinched that hair in which there was a giant life, the body collapsed and the villain was killed. On the way, he became friends with the evil Marfisa; visited the shores of the Amazons, where everyone who arrives must one day and one night to beat ten in the tournament and ten in the bed; freed from their captivity the glorious Christian knights. On the way, he even got to the Atlanta Castle, but he also did not stand against his wonderful horn: the walls were scattered, Atlanta was dead, the prisoners were saved, and Rudgerand Bradamanta (remember?) Finally saw each other, rushed into hugs, swore allegiance and dispersed : she is in the castle to her brother Rinald, and he is in Saracen's state, to serve his service to Agramant, and then to receive a baptism and to marry a sweetheart. Hippogriff, the winged Atlanta horse, Astolph took himself and flew over the world, looking down. but he also did not stand against his wonderful horn: the walls were dispersed, Atlant died, the prisoners were saved, and Rujier and Bradamanta (remember?) finally saw each other, rushed into hugs, swore allegiance and dispersed: she was in the castle to her brother Rinalde , and he - in the Saracen state, to serve his service to Agramanta, and then to receive a baptism and to marry a sweetheart. Hippogriff, the winged Atlanta horse, Astolph took himself and flew over the world, looking down. but he also did not stand against his wonderful horn: the walls were dispersed, Atlant died, the prisoners were saved, and Rujier and Bradamanta (remember?) finally saw each other, rushed into hugs, swore allegiance and dispersed: she was in the castle to her brother Rinalde , and he - in the Saracen state, to serve his service to Agramanta, and then to receive a baptism and to marry a sweetheart. Hippogriff, the winged Atlanta horse, Astolph took himself and flew over the world, looking down.
To this careless eccentric one had to save Roland, and for this purpose first get to Hell and to Paradise. From under the clouds he sees the Ethiopian kingdom, and in it the king, who is starved to starve, snapping food, predatory harpies - all the same, as in the ancient myths of the Argonauts. With his magic horn, he drives the harpies away, drives them into dark hell, and occasionally he listens to the story of a beautiful beauty who has been merciless to his fans and is now suffering from hell. The Grateful Ethiopian king shows Astolph a high mountain over his kingdom: there is a paradise in the earth, and in it there is an apostle John and, according to the word of God, awaits the second coming. Astolfo takes off there, the apostle brings him joyfully, tells him about the future destinies, and about the princes of Este, and about the poets who will glorify them, and about how others offend the poets with their scum - "a. it is not indifferent to me, I am the writer myself, I wrote the Gospel and Revelation. " As for Rolandin's reason, he is on the Moon: there, like on the Earth, there are mountains and valleys, and in one of the lobes, everything that is lost in the world by people, "from misfortune, from old age, from foolishness" . There is a vain fame of the monarchs, there are barren prayers of lovers, the flattery of the flatterers, the short grace of the princes, the beauty of the beauties and the mind of the prisoners. UM - a thing is easy, like steam, and therefore it is closed in the vessels, and it is written on them, in which one. There they find a vessel with the inscription "UM Roland", and another, smaller, "UM Astolfo"; Astolf surprised, breathed in his mind and felt that he was smart, and was not very. And, having glorified the beneficent apostle, not forgetting to take with him the mind of Roland, the knight riding on the hippogrifus rushes back to Earth. then he is on the moon: there, like on the Earth, there are mountains and valleys, and in one of the lobes, everything that is lost in the world by people, "from misfortune, from old age, from stupidity." There is a vain fame of the monarchs, there are barren prayers of lovers, the flattery of the flatterers, the short grace of the princes, the beauty of the beauties and the mind of the prisoners. UM - a thing is easy, like steam, and therefore it is closed in the vessels, and it is written on them, in which one. There they find a vessel with the inscription "UM Roland", and another, smaller, "UM Astolfo"; Astolf surprised, breathed in his mind and felt that he was smart, and was not very. And, having glorified the beneficent apostle, not forgetting to take with him the mind of Roland, the knight riding on the hippogrifus rushes back to Earth. then he is on the moon: there, like on the Earth, there are mountains and valleys, and in one of the lobes, everything that is lost in the world by people, "from misfortune, from old age, from stupidity." There is a vain fame of the monarchs, there are barren prayers of lovers, the flattery of the flatterers, the short grace of the princes, the beauty of the beauties and the mind of the prisoners. UM - a thing is easy, like steam, and therefore it is closed in the vessels, and it is written on them, in which one. There they find a vessel with the inscription "UM Roland", and another, smaller, "UM Astolfo"; Astolf surprised, breathed in his mind and felt that he was smart, and was not very. And, having glorified the beneficent apostle, not forgetting to take with him the mind of Roland, the knight riding on the hippogrifus rushes back to Earth. There is a vain fame of the monarchs, there are barren prayers of lovers, the flattery of the flatterers, the short grace of the princes, the beauty of the beauties and the mind of the prisoners. UM - a thing is easy, like steam, and therefore it is closed in the vessels, and it is written on them, in which one. There they find a vessel with the inscription "UM Roland", and another, smaller, "UM Astolfo"; Astolf surprised, breathed in his mind and felt that he was smart, and was not very. And, having glorified the beneficent apostle, not forgetting to take with him the mind of Roland, the knight riding on the hippogrifus rushes back to Earth. There is a vain fame of the monarchs, there are barren prayers of lovers, the flattery of the flatterers, the short grace of the princes, the beauty of the beauties and the mind of the prisoners. UM - a thing is easy, like steam, and therefore it is closed in the vessels, and it is written on them, in which one. There they find a vessel with the inscription "UM Roland", and another, smaller, "UM Astolfo"; Astolf surprised, breathed in his mind and felt that he was smart, and was not very. And, having glorified the beneficent apostle, not forgetting to take with him the mind of Roland, the knight riding on the hippogrifus rushes back to Earth. Astolf surprised, breathed in his mind and felt that he was smart, and was not very. And, having glorified the beneficent apostle, not forgetting to take with him the mind of Roland, the knight riding on the hippogrifus rushes back to Earth. Astolf surprised, breathed in his mind and felt that he was smart, and was not very. And, having glorified the beneficent apostle, not forgetting to take with him the mind of Roland, the knight riding on the hippogrifus rushes back to Earth.
And on Earth, much has changed.
First, the knights liberated by Astolph on its eastern paths, drove already to Paris, joined Rinald, he struck with Saracens with them (thunder to heaven, blood streams, his head - with shoulders, arms and legs, chopped - loose ), repulsed them from Paris, and the victory began again to lean on the Christian side. True, Rinald is in trouble, because his former unresponsive passion for Angelica is his soul. He is already able to look for her - but then begins an allegory. In the Ardennes forest, a jealousy is thrown at him: a thousand eyes, a thousand ears, a serpent's mouth, a body with rings. And to the help of him comes the knight of contempt:
a light helmet, a fiery stick, and behind the back is the key of Love, healing from unreasonable passions. Rinald drinks, forgets love madness and is again ready for a righteous battle.
Secondly, Bradamann, having heard that her Rudjer beats among the Saracens near a certain warrior named Marfis, lights up with jealousy and hopes to fight with him and with her. In a dark forest in the unknown grave, Bradaman and Marfize begin to crumble, one another is more brave, and Rudger fails in vain. And then suddenly a voice from the grave is heard - the voice of the dead wizard of Atlanta: "Oh, jealousy! Rujier and Marfisa, you are a brother and sister, your father is a Christian knight; As long as I was alive, I kept you from the faith of Christ, but now, verily, the end to my works. " Everything becomes clear, Rudjerova's sister and friend Ruggerov hug each other, Marfisa accepts holy baptism and calls for Rugger also, but he hesitates - after him, the last debt to King Argermant. One, desperate to win in the battle, wants to decide the outcome of the war in a duel: the strongest against the strongest, Ruggier vs Rinald. The place is cleared, the oaths are brought, the battle begins, the Bradamant's heart breaks up between brother and beloved, but here, as once in the Iliad and Eneida, someone strikes the truce, a general battle begins, Christians overcome, and Agramant with few of their minions flee to the ships to sail into their overseas capital, Bizerte, near Tunis. He does not know that under Bizerte his most terrible enemy is waiting.
Astolph, fleeing from the heavenly mountain, gathers the army and rushes along the land and strikes the sea from the rear to Agramantov Bizertu; with him the other paladins, who escaped from Agramant's captivity, - and to meet them crazy Roland, wild, naked - you will not come up, do not grab. They floated by a fist, tossed the arkan, stretched it, tied it, carried it to the sea, washed it, and brought Astolph to his nose vessel with Roland's mind. He only breathed in, cleared his eyes and speech, and already he was the former Roland, and is already free from malicious love. The Karlovsky ships swim, the Christians are attacked by Bizertu, the city is taken - the mountains of corpses and the flames to heaven. Agramand and his two friends are saved by the sea; Roland and two friends are chasing them; the last triple battle takes place on a small, mediterranean island, Agramant perishes, Roland is the winner, the end of the war.
But the poem is not over yet. Rudiger received a holy baptism, he came to the Charles Court, he asked for Bradamantas's hands. But the old father of Bradamantas is against: Rujier has a glorious name, but no circle nor court, and he will bestow Bradmant for Prince Leon, the heir to the Greek empire. In the mortal hill, Ruggerie goes away - to stomp forces with his opponent. On the Danube, Prince Leon fights with the Bulgars; Rudjier comes to the aid of the Bulgars, performs miracles of armed feats, Leon himself admires an unknown hero on the battlefield. Greeks cunningly draw Ruggier into captivity, give it to the emperor, throw themselves into an underground dungeon - the noble Leon saves him from the true death, honors him and secretly holds with him. "I owe you life," said the shocked Rugger, "and I'll give her for you at any moment."
These are not empty words. Bradmanta announces that she will come out only for the one who will manage her in a duel. Leon is sad: against Bradamantas he can not stand. And then he appeals to Rugger: "Come with me, go out into the field in my paws, win me Bradmant." And Rugger does not give himself up, he says: "Yes." On a large field, in front of Charles and all paladins, a brutal battle lasts for a long time: Bradamanta tries to hit a hated bridegroom, smashes a thousand hits. Ruggieri meticulously repulses everything to one, but not one does not commit himself, so that he will not even hurt his beloved accidentally. Spectators are surprised, Carl announces the guest to the winner, Leon in the secret tent hugs Rugger. "I owe you happiness," he says, "and I will give you everything you want at any moment."
But Rujieru's life is not sweet: he gives away both a horse and a sled, and he goes into a bowl of forest to die from grief. He would have died, do not interfere with the good fairy burying about the future of Este's house. Aeon finds Ruggierra, Rujierar opens to Aeon, nobility rivals with nobility, Leon renounces Bradamantas, and truth and love triumphantly, Carl and his knights grasp. Ambassadors come from the Bulgars: they ask their savior for their kingdom; now even Bradamant's father will not say that Ruggiera has neither a circle nor a court. There is a wedding, a feast, feasts, tournaments, a marriage tent embroidered with paintings to the glory of the future Este, but this is not yet a decoupling.
The last day is one we almost forgot about: Rodomonte. Under the vow, he did not take arms a year and a day, and now he started to challenge his former comrade to his Rugger: "You are a traitor to your king, you are a Christian, you are not worthy to be called a knight." The last fight begins. Horse fighting - logs in the gravel, the gravel to the clouds. Half-battle - blood through the sleds, swords spit, the fighters squeezed iron hands, both froze, and here Rodomonte falls on the ground, and the dagger Ruggiera - in his assault. And, as in the "Aeneid", to the hellish shores "his soul, which was so proud and haughty, flew away with blasphemy".