Literature of antiquity and the Middle Ages - Summary 2019 year

Plutarch (46-120)

Comparative Life Descriptions (Bioi paralleloi) - (about 100-120)

"Comparative biographies" are 23 pairs of biographies: one Greek, one Romans, beginning with the legendary kings of Theseus and Romulus, and ending with Caesar and Anthony, about whom Plutarch even heard from living witnesses. For historians, this is a precious source of information; but Plutarch wrote not for historians. He wanted the people to learn to live on the example of historians; so he united them in pairs in the resemblance of characters and deeds, and at the end of each pair put a comparison: who was better at what and what was worse. For the modern reader, these are the most boring sections, but for Plutarch they were the main ones. That's how it looked.
Aristide and Cato the Elder
Aristide (mind 467 BC) was an Athenian statesman during the Greco-Persian Wars. At the Marathon, he was one of the military leaders, but he refused to command, handing it to the leader, whose plan was considered the best. When Salamin in a decisive battle against Xerxes, he knocked off the Persians from the island, on which a monument was later erected in honor of this battle. At Platea, he commanded all the Athenian units in the Allied Greek Army. He had the nickname the Just. His opponent was Themistocles; The disagreements were such that Aristide said: "It would be best for the Athenians to take and throw me and the Femistocles into the abyss." The case came to ostracism, the "court of the crocks": each wrote on a shingled name the one whom he considered dangerous to the fatherland. An illiterate man approached Aristide: "Write here for me: Aristide". - "And do you know him?" - "No, but tired of hearing: Just and Just. " Aristide wrote, and he had to. go to exile However, later, in front of Salamis, he himself came to Themism and said: "We are throwing discord, the thing is common to us: you are better able to command, and I will be your advisor." After the victory, defending the Greek cities from the Persians, he urged them to be friends with Athens, and not with Sparta. From this formed a large maritime union; Aristide traveled all the cities and distributed allies among them so fairly that everyone was satisfied. Most noticed that at the same time, he did not take bribes and returned from a detour by the same poor man as he was. When he died, he did not leave the funds even at the funeral; The Athenians buried him at the state expense, and his daughters were married to dowries from the treasury. go to exile However, later, in front of Salamis, he himself came to Themism and said: "We are throwing discord, the thing is common to us: you are better able to command, and I will be your advisor." After the victory, defending the Greek cities from the Persians, he urged them to be friends with Athens, and not with Sparta. From this formed a large maritime union; Aristide traveled all the cities and distributed allies among them so fairly that everyone was satisfied. Most noticed that at the same time, he did not take bribes and returned from a detour by the same poor man as he was. When he died, he did not leave the funds even at the funeral; The Athenians buried him at the state expense, and his daughters were married to dowries from the treasury. go to exile However, later, in front of Salamis, he himself came to Themism and said: "We are throwing discord, the thing is common to us: you are better able to command, and I will be your advisor." After the victory, defending the Greek cities from the Persians, he urged them to be friends with Athens, and not with Sparta. From this formed a large maritime union; Aristide traveled all the cities and distributed allies among them so fairly that everyone was satisfied. Most noticed that at the same time, he did not take bribes and returned from a detour by the same poor man as he was. When he died, he did not leave the funds even at the funeral; The Athenians buried him at the state expense, and his daughters were married to dowries from the treasury. and I will be your advisor. " After the victory, defending the Greek cities from the Persians, he urged them to be friends with Athens, and not with Sparta. From this formed a large maritime union; Aristide traveled all the cities and distributed allies among them so fairly that everyone was satisfied. Most noticed that at the same time, he did not take bribes and returned from a detour by the same poor man as he was. When he died, he did not leave the funds even at the funeral; The Athenians buried him at the state expense, and his daughters were married to dowries from the treasury. and I will be your advisor. " After the victory, defending the Greek cities from the Persians, he urged them to be friends with Athens, and not with Sparta. From this formed a large maritime union; Aristide traveled all the cities and distributed allies among them so fairly that everyone was satisfied. Most noticed that at the same time, he did not take bribes and returned from a detour by the same poor man as he was. When he died, he did not leave the funds even at the funeral; The Athenians buried him at the state expense, and his daughters were married to dowries from the treasury. Most noticed that at the same time, he did not take bribes and returned from a detour by the same poor man as he was. When he died, he did not leave the funds even at the funeral; The Athenians buried him at the state expense, and his daughters were married to dowries from the treasury. Most noticed that at the same time, he did not take bribes and returned from a detour by the same poor man as he was. When he died, he did not leave the funds even at the funeral; The Athenians buried him at the state expense, and his daughters were married to dowries from the treasury.
Catan the Elder (234-149 BC), in his youth, participated in the II Punic War of Rome with Carthage, in his mature years fought in Spain and against the Asian king Antiochus in Greece, and died on the eve of the III Punic War, to which he persistently called: Every speech he concluded with words: "And besides, it is necessary to destroy Carthage". He was from an infamous kind and only by his own merits he reached the highest state office - a censor: in Rome it was a rarity. Cato was proud of this, and in every speech he reiterated his merits; However, when asked why he had not yet erected a statue, he said: "Let them be better asked why they did not erect, than why they erected". The censor was to observe social traditions: Cato fought with luxury, expelled from Rome Greek teachers for the fact that their lessons undermine the harsh morals of their ancestors, excluded Senator from the Senate for killing his wife at people. He said: "Do not stand up to the city, where the red fish are paid more dearly than the worker's ox." He himself gave an example in his harsh way of life: he worked in the field, ate and drank the same, that his farm workers, he himself brought up a son, wrote for him in capital letters the history of Rome, and a book of advice on agriculture ("how to get rich"), and much more. He had many enemies, including the best Roman commander Scipio, the winner of the Carthaginian Hannibal; he overcame all, and Scipio blamed the excess of authority and unacceptable love for Greek scholarship, and he retired to his estates. Like Nestor, he survived three generations; already in old age, fighting off attacks in court, he said: "It's hard when life is lived with one, but to justify others." that at people he kissed his wife. He said: "Do not stand up to the city, where the red fish are paid more dearly than the worker's ox." He himself gave an example in his harsh way of life: he worked in the field, ate and drank the same, that his farm workers, he himself brought up a son, wrote for him in capital letters the history of Rome, and a book of advice on agriculture ("how to get rich"), and much more. He had many enemies, including the best Roman commander Scipio, the winner of the Carthaginian Hannibal; he overcame all, and Scipio blamed the excess of authority and unacceptable love for Greek scholarship, and he retired to his estates. Like Nestor, he survived three generations; already in old age, fighting off attacks in court, he said: "It's hard when life is lived with one, but to justify others." that at people he kissed his wife. He said: "Do not stand up to the city, where the red fish are paid more dearly than the worker's ox." He himself gave an example in his harsh way of life: he worked in the field, ate and drank the same, that his farm workers, he himself brought up a son, wrote for him in capital letters the history of Rome, and a book of advice on agriculture ("how to get rich"), and much more. He had many enemies, including the best Roman commander Scipio, the winner of the Carthaginian Hannibal; he overcame all, and Scipio blamed the excess of authority and unacceptable love for Greek scholarship, and he retired to his estates. Like Nestor, he survived three generations; already in old age, fighting off attacks in court, he said: "It's hard when life is lived with one, but to justify others." where the red fish are paid more dearly than the labor wolf. " He himself gave an example in his harsh way of life: he worked in the field, ate and drank the same, that his farm workers, he himself brought up a son, wrote for him in capital letters the history of Rome, and a book of advice on agriculture ("how to get rich"), and much more. He had many enemies, including the best Roman commander Scipio, the winner of the Carthaginian Hannibal; he overcame all, and Scipio blamed the excess of authority and unacceptable love for Greek scholarship, and he retired to his estates. Like Nestor, he survived three generations; already in old age, fighting off attacks in court, he said: "It's hard when life is lived with one, but to justify others." where the red fish are paid more dearly than the labor wolf. " He himself gave an example in his harsh way of life: he worked in the field, ate and drank the same, that his farm workers, he himself brought up a son, wrote for him in capital letters the history of Rome, and a book of advice on agriculture ("how to get rich"), and much more. He had many enemies, including the best Roman commander Scipio, the winner of the Carthaginian Hannibal; he overcame all, and Scipio blamed the excess of authority and unacceptable love for Greek scholarship, and he retired to his estates. Like Nestor, he survived three generations; already in old age, fighting off attacks in court, he said: "It's hard when life is lived with one, but to justify others." He himself brought up a son, he wrote for him in capital letters the history of Rome, and a book of advice on agriculture ("how to get rich"), and much more. He had many enemies, including the best Roman commander Scipio, the winner of the Carthaginian Hannibal; he overcame all, and Scipio blamed the excess of authority and unacceptable love for Greek scholarship, and he retired to his estates. Like Nestor, he survived three generations; already in old age, fighting off attacks in court, he said: "It's hard when life is lived with one, but to justify others." He himself brought up a son, he wrote for him in capital letters the history of Rome, and a book of advice on agriculture ("how to get rich"), and much more. He had many enemies, including the best Roman commander Scipio, the winner of the Carthaginian Hannibal; he overcame all, and Scipio blamed the excess of authority and unacceptable love for Greek scholarship, and he retired to his estates. Like Nestor, he survived three generations; already in old age, fighting off attacks in court, he said: "It's hard when life is lived with one, but to justify others." and Scipio blamed the excess of authority and unacceptable love for Greek scholarship, and he retired to his estates. Like Nestor, he survived three generations; already in old age, fighting off attacks in court, he said: "It's hard when life is lived with one, but to justify others." and Scipio blamed the excess of authority and unacceptable love for Greek scholarship, and he retired to his estates. Like Nestor, he survived three generations; already in old age, fighting off attacks in court, he said: "It's hard when life is lived with one, but to justify others."
Comparison. In the fight against rivals, Katon has shown himself better than Aristide. Aristide had to go into exile, and Cato controversy with rivals in the courts to a very old age and always emerged victorious. At the same time, Aristide was a serious opponent to the one of Themisbacles, a man of low caliber, and Cato had to break into politics, when he was firmly standing in power, and yet he achieved the goal. - In the struggle against external enemies, Aristide fought at the Marathon, Salamín, and Platea, but everywhere in the second roles, while Cato himself wins victories both in Spain and in Greece. However, the enemies with which Katon fought, did not go to any comparison with the terrifying hordes of Xerxes. - Aristide died in poverty, and this is not good: a person must strive for abundance in his house, then there will be plenty of state. Katon, however, has shown himself to be a great master, and this is better. On the other hand, the philosophers are not in vain: "Only the gods do not know the needs; the less human needs, the closer he is to the gods. " In this case, poverty, not from waste, but from the moderation of desires, like Aristide, is better than wealth, even as Katon: is it not contradictory that Katon teaches to be rich, and himself boasts of moderation? - Aristide was modest, he was praised by others, but Cato was proud of his merits and taunted them in all his speeches; it's not good. Aristide was insolent, during the war he honestly helped his dishonorist Themisbacles. The Cato, however, in a rivalry with Scipio almost stopped his victory over Hannibal in Africa, and then made this great man leave the cause and leave Rome; it's just not good. the less human needs, the closer he is to the gods. " In this case, poverty, not from waste, but from the moderation of desires, like Aristide, is better than wealth, even as Katon: is it not contradictory that Katon teaches to be rich, and himself boasts of moderation? - Aristide was modest, he was praised by others, but Cato was proud of his merits and taunted them in all his speeches; it's not good. Aristide was insolent, during the war he honestly helped his dishonorist Themisbacles. The Cato, however, in a rivalry with Scipio almost stopped his victory over Hannibal in Africa, and then made this great man leave the cause and leave Rome; it's just not good. the less human needs, the closer he is to the gods. " In this case, poverty, not from waste, but from the moderation of desires, like Aristide, is better than wealth, even as Katon: is it not contradictory that Katon teaches to be rich, and himself boasts of moderation? - Aristide was modest, he was praised by others, but Cato was proud of his merits and taunted them in all his speeches; it's not good. Aristide was insolent, during the war he honestly helped his dishonorist Themisbacles. The Cato, however, in a rivalry with Scipio almost stopped his victory over Hannibal in Africa, and then made this great man leave the cause and leave Rome; it's just not good. as Katon: is it not contradictory that Katon teaches to be rich, and himself boasts of moderation? - Aristide was modest, he was praised by others, but Cato was proud of his merits and taunted them in all his speeches; it's not good. Aristide was insolent, during the war he honestly helped his dishonorist Themisbacles. The Cato, however, in a rivalry with Scipio almost stopped his victory over Hannibal in Africa, and then made this great man leave the cause and leave Rome; it's just not good. as Katon: is it not contradictory that Katon teaches to be rich, and himself boasts of moderation? - Aristide was modest, he was praised by others, but Cato was proud of his merits and taunted them in all his speeches; it's not good. Aristide was insolent, during the war he honestly helped his dishonorist Themisbacles. The Cato, however, in a rivalry with Scipio almost stopped his victory over Hannibal in Africa, and then made this great man leave the cause and leave Rome; it's just not good. The Cato, however, in a rivalry with Scipio almost stopped his victory over Hannibal in Africa, and then made this great man leave the cause and leave Rome; it's just not good. The Cato, however, in a rivalry with Scipio almost stopped his victory over Hannibal in Africa, and then made this great man leave the cause and leave Rome; it's just not good.
Agesilai and Pompey
Agesilai (399-360 BC) was the Spartan king, a model of ancient valor of the times of the beginning of the fall of morals. He was small, chrome, fast and unpretentious; His name was called to listen to the singer, who was singing like a nightingale, and he answered: "I heard the real nightingale." In campaigns, he lived with everyone in sight, and slept in temples: "What people do not see, even if they see the gods." The soldiers loved him so that the government made him reprimand: "They love you more than your fatherland." He was raised to the throne by the famous military leader Lysander, proclaiming his opponent as the illegitimate son of the former king; Lysander hoped to rule himself from behind Agesilaya, but he quickly took power in his own hands. Agesilai twice saved Sparta. For the first time, he went to Persia and won it, as Alexander then, but received an order to return, because the whole of Greece rose up against Sparta. He came back and hit the rebels in the rear; the war lasted, but Sparta resisted. For the second time the Spartans defeated the prisoners and approached the city itself; Agesilai with a small detachment took up defenses, and the Thebes did not dare to attack. According to the ancient law, warriors who fled from the enemy, were shamefully deprived of civil rights; Following this law, Sparta would remain without citizens. Agesilai declared: "Let the law sleep today, and tomorrow will wake up" - and this came out of the situation. For war, money was needed, Agesilai went to earn money by sea: Egypt there rose up against Persia, and he was called to be leader. In Egypt, he liked the hardest reed: it was possible to weave even more modest wreaths than in Sparta. The split broke out between the rebels, Agesilai joined those who paid more: "I do not fight for Egypt, but for the sake of Sparta." Here he died; his body was embalmed and taken home.
Pompey (106-48 BC) grew up in the First Roman civil war under the dictator Sulla, was the strongest person in Rome between the 1st and 2nd civil wars, and died in the Second Civil War against Caesar. He defeated the rebels in Africa and Spain, Spartak in Italy, pirates all over the Mediterranean, Tsar Mithridates in Asia Minor, Tsar Tigran in Armenia, King Aristobulus in Jerusalem, and celebrated three triumphs over three parts of the world. He said that he received any post earlier than he had expected, and put it before what others were waiting for. He was brave and simple; in sixty years he was engaged in combat exercises along with his ordinary soldiers. In Athens, on the arch in his honor was the inscription: "The more you are a man, the more you are a god." But he was too straight to be a politician. The Senate was afraid and did not trust him he concluded an alliance with the politicians Crassus and Caesar against the Senate. Beauty was lost, and Caesar gained strength, conquered Gaul and threatened both the Senate and Pompey, Pompey did not dare to conduct a civil war in Italy - he assembled troops in Greece. Caesar chased after him; Pompeii could surround his troops and starve him, but preferred to give a fight. This then Caesar exclaimed: "At last I will fight not with hunger and hardship, but with people!" At Farsale, Caesar defeated Pompey to the head. Pompey fell in spirit; the Greek philosopher said to him: "Are you sure that you would use a better victory than Caesar?" Pompey ran by the ship by the sea to the king of Egypt. The elders of Alexandria ruled that Caesar was stronger, and killed Pompey on the shore at landing. When Caesar arrived in Alexandria, he put his head and seal on Pompey. Caesar cried and ordered the execution of the killers. and Caesar gained strength, conquered Gaul and threatened both the Senate and Pompey, Pompey did not dare to conduct a civil war in Italy - he assembled troops in Greece. Caesar chased after him; Pompeii could surround his troops and starve him, but preferred to give a fight. This then Caesar exclaimed: "At last I will fight not with hunger and hardship, but with people!" At Farsale, Caesar defeated Pompey to the head. Pompey fell in spirit; the Greek philosopher said to him: "Are you sure that you would use a better victory than Caesar?" Pompey ran by the ship by the sea to the king of Egypt. The elders of Alexandria ruled that Caesar was stronger, and killed Pompey on the shore at landing. When Caesar arrived in Alexandria, he put his head and seal on Pompey. Caesar cried and ordered the execution of the killers. and Caesar gained strength, conquered Gaul and threatened both the Senate and Pompey, Pompey did not dare to conduct a civil war in Italy - he assembled troops in Greece. Caesar chased after him; Pompeii could surround his troops and starve him, but preferred to give a fight. This then Caesar exclaimed: "At last I will fight not with hunger and hardship, but with people!" At Farsale, Caesar defeated Pompey to the head. Pompey fell in spirit; the Greek philosopher said to him: "Are you sure that you would use a better victory than Caesar?" Pompey ran by the ship by the sea to the king of Egypt. The elders of Alexandria ruled that Caesar was stronger, and killed Pompey on the shore at landing. When Caesar arrived in Alexandria, he put his head and seal on Pompey. Caesar cried and ordered the execution of the killers. Pompeii did not dare to conduct a civil war in Italy - he assembled troops in Greece. Caesar chased after him; Pompeii could surround his troops and starve him, but preferred to give a fight. This then Caesar exclaimed: "At last I will fight not with hunger and hardship, but with people!" At Farsale, Caesar defeated Pompey to the head. Pompey fell in spirit; the Greek philosopher said to him: "Are you sure that you would use a better victory than Caesar?" Pompey ran by the ship by the sea to the king of Egypt. The elders of Alexandria ruled that Caesar was stronger, and killed Pompey on the shore at landing. When Caesar arrived in Alexandria, he put his head and seal on Pompey. Caesar cried and ordered the execution of the killers. Pompeii did not dare to conduct a civil war in Italy - he assembled troops in Greece. Caesar chased after him; Pompeii could surround his troops and starve him, but preferred to give a fight. This then Caesar exclaimed: "At last I will fight not with hunger and hardship, but with people!" At Farsale, Caesar defeated Pompey to the head. Pompey fell in spirit; the Greek philosopher said to him: "Are you sure that you would use a better victory than Caesar?" Pompey ran by the ship by the sea to the king of Egypt. The elders of Alexandria ruled that Caesar was stronger, and killed Pompey on the shore at landing. When Caesar arrived in Alexandria, he put his head and seal on Pompey. Caesar cried and ordered the execution of the killers. "At last I will fight not with hunger and hardship, but with people!" At Farsale, Caesar defeated Pompey to the head. Pompey fell in spirit; the Greek philosopher said to him: "Are you sure that you would use a better victory than Caesar?" Pompey ran by the ship by the sea to the king of Egypt. The elders of Alexandria ruled that Caesar was stronger, and killed Pompey on the shore at landing. When Caesar arrived in Alexandria, he put his head and seal on Pompey. Caesar cried and ordered the execution of the killers. "At last I will fight not with hunger and hardship, but with people!" At Farsale, Caesar defeated Pompey to the head. Pompey fell in spirit; the Greek philosopher said to him: "Are you sure that you would use a better victory than Caesar?" Pompey ran by the ship by the sea to the king of Egypt. The elders of Alexandria ruled that Caesar was stronger, and killed Pompey on the shore at landing. When Caesar arrived in Alexandria, he put his head and seal on Pompey. Caesar cried and ordered the execution of the killers. When Caesar arrived in Alexandria, he put his head and seal on Pompey. Caesar cried and ordered the execution of the killers. When Caesar arrived in Alexandria, he put his head and seal on Pompey. Caesar cried and ordered the execution of the killers.
Comparison. Pompeii came to power only by his own merits, but Agesilai - not without trickery, declaring illegal another heir, Pompey supported Sulla, Agesilaya - Lysander, but Pompey Sulla always honored, Agesilai the same Lysandra ungratefully dismissed - in all this behavior Pompey was much more comforted . However, Agesilai's state wisdom revealed more than Pompey, for example, when he interrupted a victorious campaign by order and when he returned to save his fatherland, or when nobody knew what to do with the victim, he thought that "one day the laws sleep." The victories of Pompeii over Mithridates and other kings, of course, are much more majestic than the victories of Agesilaya over the little Greek militias. And the mercy of the defeated Pompey could do better - the pirates settled down the cities and villages, and Tigran made his ally; Agesilai was much more vindictive. However, in his main war Agesilius showed more self-control and more courage than Pompeii. He was not afraid of rebukes for returning from Persia without victory, and did not hesitate to go with the small army to defend Sparta from invading enemies. And Pompey first left Rome before the little forces of Caesar, and then in Greece was ashamed to delay the time and took the fight when it was beneficial to him and his opponent. Both ended up living in Egypt, but Pompey floated there as needed, Agesilaius from liveliness, and Pompey fell deceived by the enemies, and Agesilai himself deceived his friends: here again Pompey deserves more sympathy. and did not hesitate to go out with the small army to defend Sparta from invading enemies. And Pompey first left Rome before the little forces of Caesar, and then in Greece was ashamed to delay the time and took the fight when it was beneficial to him and his opponent. Both ended up living in Egypt, but Pompey floated there as needed, Agesilaius from liveliness, and Pompey fell deceived by the enemies, and Agesilai himself deceived his friends: here again Pompey deserves more sympathy. and did not hesitate to go out with the small army to defend Sparta from invading enemies. And Pompey first left Rome before the little forces of Caesar, and then in Greece was ashamed to delay the time and took the fight when it was beneficial to him and his opponent. Both ended up living in Egypt, but Pompey floated there as needed, Agesilaius from liveliness, and Pompey fell deceived by the enemies, and Agesilai himself deceived his friends: here again Pompey deserves more sympathy.
Demosthenes and Cicero
Demosthenes (384-322 BC) was the greatest Athenian speaker. From the nature of the profane and weak-voiced, he exercised himself by speaking a stone with pebbles in his mouth, or on the shores of a noisy sea, or ascending to a mountain; for these exercises, he went for a long time to live in a cave, and to be ashamed to return to people earlier than time, he cut off his half-headed. Speaking at a people's meeting, he said: "Athenians, you will have an advisor in me, even if you do not want it, but never a flatterer, even if you want to." Other speakers were given bribes so that they spoke to the bribe-taker; Demosphen was given bribes so he would just keep silent. He was asked: "Why are you silent?" He replied: "I have a fever"; They were joking over him: "Golden Rush!" King Philip Macedon was advancing to Greece, Demosthenes made a miracle - his speeches united against him were incoherent Greek cities. Philip managed to defeat the Greeks in battle, but grinned at the thought that Demosthenes could have destroyed everything that the tsar had achieved for many years. The Persian king considered Demosthenes his main ally against Philip and sent him a lot of gold, Demosthenes assumed: "He was best able to glorify the courage of his ancestors, but he could not imitate them." His enemies, having caught him at the hostage, were sent to exile; leaving he exclaimed: "Oh Athena, why do you love the three most evil animals? Owl, the snake and the people?" After the death of Alexander the Great, Demosthenes again raised the Greeks to war against the Macedonians, the Greeks were again defeated, Demosthenes escaped in the temple. Macedonians ordered him to leave, he said: "Now, only I will write a will"; took out a note of the tablets, thoughtfully put a scribble on his lips and fell dead: in the slate, he wore poison with him. On the statue in his honor it was written: "If Demosthenes your strength equaled your mind, Macedonians would not ever own Greece forever."
Cicero (106-43 BC) was the greatest Roman speaker. When he learned the eloquence in the conquered Greece, his teacher exclaimed: "YOU, the last glory of Greece passes to the Romans!" He considered the model for all speakers as Demosthenes; When asked which of the things Demosthenes was the best, he replied: "The longest." Like Katon the Elder once, he was from an infamous kind, only thanks to his oratorical talent, he came from the lowest public posts to the highest. He had to act as a defender and prosecutor; when he was told: "You killed people more than accusations, they saved the defenders," he replied: "So, I was more honest than eloquent." Each post in Rome was occupied by year, and then it was supposed to manage a province a year; Usually the governors used it for profit, Cicero is never. A year when Cicero was a consul and stood at the head of the state, Catiline's plot against the Roman Republic was discovered, but there was no direct evidence against Catiline; however, Cicero pronounced such a controversial speech against him that he fled from Rome, and his accomplices were executed on the orders of Cicero. Then the enemies used it to expel Cicero from Rome; In a year he returned, but his influence weakened, he increasingly moved away from the affairs into the estate and wrote essays on philosophy and politics. When Caesar went to power, Cicero did not have the spirit to fight him; but when Anthony broke into power after Caesar's death, Cicero was the last time to rush into the struggle, and his speeches against Anthony were famous, just like the words of Demosthenes v Philip. But strength was on the side of Anthony; Cicero had to escape, escaped and killed him.
Comparison. Which of the two speakers was more talented, Plutarch says, he does not dare to judge: this is only possible for the one who equally holds both Latin and Greek. The main virtue of the things of Demosthenes was considered to be the strength and power of Cicero's words - flexibility and ease; Demosthenes called the enemies a brunette, Cicero - a joker. Of these two extremes, perhaps, Demosthenov is still better. In addition, Demosthenes, if he praised himself, was not necessary, but Cicero was vaunted to the funny one. But Demosthenes was a speaker, and only a speaker, and Cicero left many works in philosophy, politics, and rhetoric: this versatility, of course, is a great virtue. Both had a huge influence on political affairs with their own words; but Demosthenes did not hold high posts and did not pass, so to speak, tests of power, and Cicero was a consul and brilliantly showed himself suppressing the plot of Catiline. What undeniably Cicero surpassed Demosthenes is disobedience: he did not take bribes in the provinces or gifts from friends; Demosthenes, of course, received money from the Persian king and went to exile for his brutality. But in exile Demosthenes behaved better than Cicero: he continued to unite the Greeks in the struggle against Philip and in many respects succeeded, while Cicero sank in spirit, idly drove himself to grief, and then he did not dare to oppose tyranny for a long time. Similarly, Demosthenes accepted Death more deservingly. Cicero, albeit an old man, was afraid of death and rushed to escape from the murderers, and Demosthenes himself took the poison as he liked a courageous man. no gifts from friends; Demosthenes, of course, received money from the Persian king and went to exile for his brutality. But in exile Demosthenes behaved better than Cicero: he continued to unite the Greeks in the struggle against Philip and in many respects succeeded, while Cicero sank in spirit, idly drove himself to grief, and then he did not dare to oppose tyranny for a long time. Similarly, Demosthenes accepted Death more deservingly. Cicero, albeit an old man, was afraid of death and rushed to escape from the murderers, and Demosthenes himself took the poison as he liked a courageous man. no gifts from friends; Demosthenes, of course, received money from the Persian king and went to exile for his brutality. But in exile Demosthenes behaved better than Cicero: he continued to unite the Greeks in the struggle against Philip and in many respects succeeded, while Cicero sank in spirit, idly drove himself to grief, and then he did not dare to oppose tyranny for a long time. Similarly, Demosthenes accepted Death more deservingly. Cicero, albeit an old man, was afraid of death and rushed to escape from the murderers, and Demosthenes himself took the poison as he liked a courageous man. Similarly, Demosthenes accepted Death more deservingly. Cicero, albeit an old man, was afraid of death and rushed to escape from the murderers, and Demosthenes himself took the poison as he liked a courageous man. Similarly, Demosthenes accepted Death more deservingly. Cicero, albeit an old man, was afraid of death and rushed to escape from the murderers, and Demosthenes himself took the poison as he liked a courageous man.
Demetrius and Antony
Demetrius Poliorket (336-283 BC) was the son of the Antigonus of the One-Eagle, the oldest and most powerful of the generals of Alexander of Macedon. When after the death of Alexander the war began for power between his commanders, Antigon captured Asia Minor and Syria, and Demetriya sent to repel Greece from under the authority of Macedonia. In the hungry Athens he brought the bread; he made a mistake in the language, corrected him, he exclaimed: "For this amendment, I give you five thousand measures of bread!" They were proclaimed by God, settled in the temple of Athens, and he arranged there with his friends and friends with the Athenians took taxes on them for blush and whitening. The city of Rhodes refused to obey him, Demetrius besieged him, but did not take it because he was afraid to burn the workshop of the artist of Protogene, which was at the very city wall. The abandoned siege towers were so huge that the rhodesians sold them on scrap, for the proceeds of money erected a gigantic statue - Colossus of Rhodes. The nickname of his Poliorket means "townmate". But in the decisive battle Antigonus and Demetrius were defeated, Antigone was killed, Demetrius fled, neither the Athenians nor the other Greeks wanted to receive him. He captured the Macedonian kingdom for several years, but did not hold him back. The Macedonians obeyed his arrogance: he walked in scarlet dresses with a golden border, in purple boots, in a raincoat, sewn by stars, and accepted the requesters in an unwise manner: "I have no time". "If there is no time, then there's nothing to be king!" - he called one old woman. After losing Macedonia, he rushed across Asia Minor, his troops left him, he got into the environment and surrendered to captive rival king. He sent the order to his son: But in the decisive battle Antigonus and Demetrius were defeated, Antigone was killed, Demetrius fled, neither the Athenians nor the other Greeks wanted to receive him. He captured the Macedonian kingdom for several years, but did not hold him back. The Macedonians obeyed his arrogance: he walked in scarlet dresses with a golden border, in purple boots, in a raincoat, sewn by stars, and accepted the requesters in an unwise manner: "I have no time". "If there is no time, then there's nothing to be king!" - he called one old woman. After losing Macedonia, he rushed across Asia Minor, his troops left him, he got into the environment and surrendered to captive rival king. He sent the order to his son: But in the decisive battle Antigonus and Demetrius were defeated, Antigone was killed, Demetrius fled, neither the Athenians nor the other Greeks wanted to receive him. He captured the Macedonian kingdom for several years, but did not hold him back. The Macedonians obeyed his arrogance: he walked in scarlet dresses with a golden border, in purple boots, in a raincoat, sewn by stars, and accepted the requesters in an unwise manner: "I have no time". "If there is no time, then there's nothing to be king!" - he called one old woman. After losing Macedonia, he rushed across Asia Minor, his troops left him, he got into the environment and surrendered to captive rival king. He sent the order to his son: in purple boots, in a raincoat, with stitches of stars, and accepted the applicants silently: "I have no time". "If there is no time, then there's nothing to be king!" - he called one old woman. After losing Macedonia, he rushed across Asia Minor, his troops left him, he got into the environment and surrendered to captive rival king. He sent the order to his son: in purple boots, in a raincoat, with stitches of stars, and accepted the applicants silently: "I have no time". "If there is no time, then there's nothing to be king!" - he called one old woman. After losing Macedonia, he rushed across Asia Minor, his troops left him, he got into the environment and surrendered to captive rival king. He sent the order to his son: "Count me dead and that I would write to you - do not obey." The son offered himself captive instead of his father - unsuccessfully. In three years Demetrius died in captivity, drinking and raping.
Mark Anthony (82-30 BC) grew up in the II Roman civil war, fighting for Caesar against Pompey, and died fighting for power in the Third Civil War against Octavian, the adopted son of Caesar. As a young man, he loved a raucous life, drove his mistresses with his servants, drank in lush tents, riding a chariot drawn by lions; but he was generous to the people, and easy with the soldiers, and he was loved. In the year of Caesar's murder, Antony was a consul, but he had to share power with Octavian. They laid their hands on the massacre of rich and noble Republicans - then Cicero died; then together they smashed the last republicans of Brutus and Cassius who killed Caesar, Brutus and Cassius committed suicide. Octavian went to pacify Rome and the West, Antony - to conquer the East. The Asian kings bowed to him, the townspeople arranged in honor of his violent processions, his commanders were victorious over Parthians and Armenians. The Egyptian Queen Cleopatra met with him with a lush congregation, like Aphrodite to Dionysius; they made a wedding, feasting together, drinking, playing dice, hunting, spending uncountable money and, worse, time. When he demanded from the people two taxes in one year, he was told: "If you are a god, then make us two summers and two winters!" He wanted to become the king in Alexandria and from there spread his power to Rome; The Romans were indignant, Octavian took it and went on war on him. They met in a sea battle; In the midst of the battle, Cleopatra turned his ships to flight, Anthony rushed after her, and victory remained behind Octavian. Octavian besieged them in Alexandria; Anthony called him into a fight, Octavian replied: "There are many ways to die." Then Anthony threw himself on his sword, and Cleopatra committed suicide by letting herself be stung by a poisonous snake.
Comparison. We will compare these two generals, who have begun well and who have been ill-treated, to see how a good person should not behave. So, the Spartans at the feasts had drunk a slave and showed the young men how ugly they were drunk. - The power received his Demetrius without difficulty, from the hands of his father; Anthony went to her, relying only on her strengths and abilities; this he inspires more respect. - But Demetrius ruled over the Macedonians, who were accustomed to the tsarist government, Antonius wanted the Romans, accustomed to the republic, to subordinate their royal power; it's much worse. In addition, Demetrius won his own victory, Antonius led the main war with his military leaders. "Both loved luxury and disgrace, but Demetrius was ready at any moment to transform himself from a lazy man to a warrior, but for the sake of Cleopatra, he laid aside everything and looked like Hercules in slavery at Omfali. But Demetrius in his amusements was cruel and wicked, defiled by fornication even temples, but according to Anthony it was not used. Demetrius inflicted harm on others by his own inexhaustibility, Antony himself. Demetrius was defeated by the fact that the army had retreated from him, Antony - because he himself left his army: the first guilty that inspired such hatred for himself, the second - that betrayed such a love for himself. "Both died of lethal death, but Demetrios's death was more shameful: he agreed to be a prisoner, so that for three more years to drink and eat in captivity, Antony preferred to kill himself than to give in to the hands of his enemies. that the army had retreated from him, Antony - because he himself left his army: the first guilty that inspired such hatred for himself, the second - that betrayed such a love for himself. "Both died of lethal death, but Demetrios's death was more shameful: he agreed to be a prisoner, so that for three more years to drink and eat in captivity, Antony preferred to kill himself than to give in to the hands of his enemies. that the army had retreated from him, Antony - because he himself left his army: the first guilty that inspired such hatred for himself, the second - that betrayed such a love for himself. "Both died of lethal death, but Demetrios's death was more shameful: he agreed to be a prisoner, so that for three more years to drink and eat in captivity, Antony preferred to kill himself than to give in to the hands of his enemies.