The use of repetition in “The Sound and the Fury” by William Faulkner
The Sound and the Fury by William Faulkner is a novel known for its unconventional narrative structure and its exploration of the decline of the Southern aristocracy in the early 20th century. One of the key elements that contribute to the novel's complexity and depth is the use of repetition. Faulkner uses repetition in various ways throughout the novel, from repeating phrases and motifs to revisiting events from different perspectives. Through these repetitions, Faulkner emphasizes the characters' struggles with time and memory, and explores themes of loss, identity, and decay.
One of the most striking uses of repetition in the novel is the repetition of certain phrases or images. For example, the phrase "the sound and the fury" appears several times throughout the novel, both as a direct reference to the Macbeth quote that the title is taken from and as a recurring motif. The phrase emphasizes the cyclical nature of time, suggesting that history is bound to repeat itself and that the past can never truly be escaped.
Another recurring image is that of the Compson family's dilapidated home, which is described in vivid detail multiple times throughout the novel. This repetition serves to underscore the family's decline and decay, as well as their inability to escape their past.
In addition to these repetitions, Faulkner also employs repetition through the novel's structure. The novel is divided into four sections, each with a different narrator and a different perspective on the events that unfold. This repetition of events from different perspectives serves to highlight the subjectivity of memory and the fluidity of time. It also allows Faulkner to explore the characters' inner lives in depth, revealing their motivations and struggles in a way that a linear narrative would not.
Perhaps the most powerful use of repetition in the novel is the repetition of certain scenes or events. One of the most famous examples of this is the scene in which Benjy, the mentally disabled Compson brother, witnesses his sister Caddy's sexual encounter with a man named Charlie. This scene is repeated multiple times throughout the novel, each time from a different perspective and with new details revealed. This repetition serves to highlight the characters' inability to escape the past and the trauma that haunts them.
Overall, the use of repetition in The Sound and the Fury serves to emphasize the novel's themes of time, memory, and decay. Through repetition, Faulkner creates a complex and layered narrative that explores the characters' inner lives and struggles with remarkable depth and nuance. The novel's use of repetition remains a testament to Faulkner's mastery of narrative technique and his ability to create powerful and enduring works of literature.