Essays on literary works - 2023
George Byron or a Byronian tie
Lord George Gordon Byron
Epigraph: I would like to exchange
this world of guile and deceit for the edge, In which the chest breathes freely Between dark cliffs and ridges. I will make my way to the Peaks of Glory, but not by dishonor ... George Byron Today in the business world one cannot do without such a simple but important piece of clothing as a tie. Business people, taking part in important meetings or meetings, will certainly wear it. For some, this piece of matter has already become a part of his everyday clothes. But many people: did not think about its great history.The word "tie" means a small strip of fabric tied in a special way around the neck. The name comes from the German language, which means "neck scarf". Ties really originated from neckerchiefs, the history of which reaches back centuries.
The first mention of ties can be found in the history of ancient Egypt, where a piece of fabric of the correct geometric shape, thrown over the shoulders, served as a kind of symbol of the social status of its owner. Also, the ancient Chinese were among the first to wear a tie. This is evidenced by stone statues near the tomb of Emperor Shihuan Di - bandages on the necks of nobles and warriors, similar to modern ties. Nevertheless, these bandages were very far from modern ties both in terms of the way they were worn and in form, and were deprived of the main attribute of a modern tie - the knot.
The appearance of neckerchiefs in ancient Rome marked the beginning of the era of ties in the modern sense of the word. Nevertheless, the year 1635 is considered to be the real victory of this symbol of men's wardrobe. After the victory over the Janissaries of the Turkish Sultan, the Croatian soldiers were invited to the French King Louis XIII, which was a reward for courage and valor revealed on the battlefield. Officers of the Croatian army then wore colorful silk neckerchiefs. The French king liked the new wardrobe detail so much that he could not resist and also tied something similar around his neck, becoming the first trendsetter for ties in France, and indeed throughout Europe. Hence one of the versions of the origin of the French word tie as a derivative of the self-name of the Croats.
It should be noted that without the further spread of the fashion for wearing ties in England, they would hardly have received the importance that they have in modern business fashion. In England, the wearing of ties was reduced to the rank of high art, and the gentleman was offered a choice of up to a hundred different ways of tying. The most serious insult for the man was a critical remark about his tie.
The mysterious poet Lord Byron, whose slender figure in a fitted velvet coat is exalted by an original hairstyle, is a typical dandy. Imagination immediately draws a picture: an elegant man, an impeccable suit, perhaps even a tuxedo, an exquisite tie, lazy polished movements, a dismissive smile. Let's continue the journey with the mental museum of fashion history. In 1827, the famous writer Honore de Balzac wrote a book called The Art of Wearing a Tie, in which he explained the aesthetic necessity of tying a tie. The Byronian tie had to be tied wide, i.e. tightened his throat. So, you are already used to the fact that in the lessons of foreign literature we are talking about famous writers, and the hero of today's lesson will be the English fashion trendsetter Lord Byron.
“There is a certain originality to be found in everything connected with the genius of Lord Byron. Therefore, we will not see in the way of tying a necktie by a glorious poet either beauty or neatness, as is attributed to fashion.
The slightest squeezing of the body almost always "binds the spirit." How do you know how capable a tightly drawn tie is to shackle flights of fancy and suffocate thought?
Singer of the Corsairs, he escaped all fetters.
And the tie named after him is significantly different from all other ties: instead of first putting it on the front of the neck, it is applied to the back of the neck, and then the two ends are pulled forward and tied in a large knot under the chin, the knot had to have at least 4 inches wide and had two expressive ends coming out of it. This tie was especially convenient for flights and for travel, because it was tied around the neck only once and did not tighten the neck too much.
Byron's fashion was very durable. Not a single poet has changed such a traditional view of a person, the world in which he lives, society, politics, fashion, permanent literary canons, as Byron did. The poet was almost the most popular writer not only in England, but throughout the reading world of the 19th century and created works whose heroes influenced not only the people who wrote, but also the readers who tried to “build a life” after Childeharold or Manfred - the heroes of his works have become the lifestyle of a whole generation.
Expressive reading by the poetry teacher Marina Tsvetaeva “Byron's Admirer”.
Roses are knocking on his window, An
insinuating chord is flowing ...
He will not change his proud pose,
Admirer of Byron - he is proud.
In the garden of velvet and sequins,
Shalit with the shepherdess Cupid.
Byron's admirer, does not smile - he is gloomy.
Chu! Outside the window splashing oars,
On the windowsill a bouquet ...
He trembled, he threw the book.
Forgive the admirer, poet!
For the era of romanticism, a characteristic idea is the need for a direct connection between the biography of the artist and his work. The poet had to live according to the ideals that were proclaimed in his work. This gave poetry a special power and emotional impact. Byron's freedom-loving spirit was embodied in his poetry. The life of the poet, his work is the social and spiritual history of Europe at the beginning of the 19th century. Lina Kostenko called poetry "an immortal touch to the soul." I suggest you try to “touch” the work of the idol of many people, an unsurpassed poet, an aristocrat by origin. We can learn from his poetry that Byron, of all the Romantics, was the most subjective. In all his characters, the author's "I" is actively traced. The poet wrote his poems impromptu, once he did not correct what he set out on paper.