MANDARIN DUCKS AND BUTTERFLIES SCHOOL (YUAN-YANG HUDIE PAI)
MANDARIN DUCKS AND BUTTERFLIES SCHOOL (YUAN-YANG HUDIE PAI). This term, coined in the May Fourth era, refers to middlebrow romantic fiction writers at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, a time that witnessed great debates about the role literature played in society. While the Mandarin Ducks and Butterflies school saw literature as purely a venue of entertainment, the May Fourth leaders regarded it as a serious expression of the self and a realistic portrayal of life, ideals advocated by the Creation Society, the Literary Research Society, and the Left-wing Association of Chinese Writers. Although rejected by the elite, the Mandarin Ducks and Butterflies school writers enjoyed popular success. With their journal, Saturday (Libailiu), for which they were also called the Saturday school (Libanliu pai), they were able to flood the streets with their laid-back, entertaining tales of love and betrayal. Zhang Henshui, Zhou Shou’ou, and Bao Xiaotian were some of the most popular writers of the group.