JULY SCHOOL (QIYUE PAI)
JULY SCHOOL (QIYUE PAI). A literary school formed in the first half of the 20th century around the journal Qi yue (July), which was founded and edited by Hu Feng, a Marxist theoretician who advocated “guofang wenxue” (literature for national defense) and later urged writers to focus on spontaneous, natural responses found in human behavior and historical events. This subjective stance was severely criticized by members of the left-wing literary circles, who believed that literature should faithfully serve the Communist Party’s political agendas. In the campaign against intellectuals in the early 1950s, Hu and his followers were condemned as counterrevolutionaries.